UNFCC COP 27 [Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference]

Egypt’s coastal city of Sharm el-Sheikh is hosting the 27th session of the Conference of Parties (COP27) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) from 6 to 18 November 2022. Heads of State, ministers, and negotiators, along with climate activists, mayors, civil society representatives, and CEOs will converge together in one of the largest annual gatherings on climate action. There are nearly 45,000 registered participants from 195 member countries.

This topic is important for the UPSC exam from the environment and ecology perspective. In this article, you will find all the details of the UNFCC COP27 for the IAS exam.


Confronted by the growing energy crisis, expanding greenhouse gas concentrations, and rising number of extreme weather events, COP27 seeks renewed solidarity among member countries, to deliver on the landmark Paris Agreement, for people and the planet. 

  • COP27 will build on the outcomes of COP26 and deliver action on a series of issues that are critical to tackling the climate emergency. This would include reducing greenhouse gas emissions, building resilience, adapting to the inevitable climate change impacts, and delivering on the commitments to finance climate action in developing countries.
  • COP27 was termed an ‘implementation CoP’ by the Egyptian Foreign Minister and President. 
    • This implies effective implementation of all the provisions of the Paris Agreement, and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to keep the temperature goal within reach and prevent further negative impacts.
  • COP27 must send the message, loud and clear, that be it war or peace, poverty or plenty, securing the world’s future comes at a price that only gets costlier every passing day.
  • For more than a decade, wealthy nations have rejected official discussions on what is referred to as loss and damage, or funds provided to support poor countries in dealing with the consequences of global warming. However, the issue has been put on the formal agenda for the first time in COP27.

Highlights of the meeting:

  • United Nations Secretary-General exclaimed that humanity faces a stark choice: work together now to cut emissions or condemn future generations to climate catastrophe.
  • He also called for a pact between the richest and poorest countries of the world to accelerate the transition from fossil fuels and funding to ensure poorer countries can reduce emissions and cope with the impacts that have already occurred.
  • It was reiterated that the planet is fast approaching tipping points that will certainly make the climate chaos irreversible.

COP 27 Agenda

Sharm-El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda:

The Sharm-El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda outlines 30 Adaptation Outcomes to build resilience for four billion people that are most vulnerable to climate, by 2030. Each outcome provides a global solution that can be adopted at a local level in response to local climate risks like rising climate hazards in the form of floods, heatwaves, droughts, etc. 

These outcomes together present the first comprehensive global plan for both State and non-State actors on a shared set of adaptation actions that are required to be adopted by the end of this decade across five impact systems: food and agriculture, water and nature, coastal and oceans, human settlements, and infrastructure, and including enabling solutions for planning and finance.

  1. Food Security and Agriculture Systems
    1. Climate-resilient, sustainable agriculture increases yields by 17% and reduces farm-level GHG emissions by 21%, without expansion of the agricultural frontier.
    2. Halve the share of food production lost, and per capita food waste (with respect to 2019).
    3. Healthy alternative proteins capture 15% of the global meat and seafood market.
    4. The global consumption of fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, and legumes increase by 1.5 times.
  2. Water and Nature Systems
    1. Protection of 45 million hectares (lands and inland waters), 2 billion hectares sustainable management, and 350 million hectares restoration of land securing legal indigenous and local communities with the use of nature-based solutions to improve water security and livelihoods.
    2. By 2025: financial institutions contribute to halting land conversion by eliminating commodity-driven deforestation from portfolios and tap into nature-based solutions investment opportunities of USD 354 billion/year needed by 2030.
    3. Water systems are smart, efficient, and robust with a reduction in water loss through leakage.
    4. Wastewater systems maximize recycling and reuse alongside natural wetland filtration with zero environmental spillage.
    5. Sustainable irrigation systems are implemented across 20% of global croplands to preserve water availability whilst supporting yield growth.
  3. Human Settlements Systems
    1. 1 billion people have better design, construction, and access to finance to live in decent, safe homes.
    2. Smart and early warning systems reach 3 billion people.
    3. USD 1 trillion investment in nature-based solutions for communities in urban areas.
    4. Harden social infrastructure to ensure access to basic and essential community services.
    5. Increased use of waste as a secondary resource boosts the livelihoods of informal workers and reduces open waste burning by 60%, lowering pollution levels and improving the health of local communities.
  4. Ocean and Coastal Systems
    1. Invest USD 4 billion to secure the future of 15 million hectares of mangroves globally through collective action on halting mangrove loss, restoring half of the recent losses, doubling the protection of mangroves globally, and ensuring sustainable long-term finance for all existing mangroves.
    2. Halt loss, protect and restore coral reefs to support people in tropical communities.
    3. Halt loss, protect, and restore seagrass, marshes, and kelp forests to support people in temperate communities.
    4. The urban coastline is protected by grey and hybrid solutions.
  5. Infrastructure Systems
    1. A diverse set of energy generation sources enable affordable access to electricity for 679 million unconnected people and higher quality access for 1 billion underserved people through climate-resilient energy systems.
    2. 4 billion people with access to clean cooking through at least USD 10 billion/year in innovative finance for clean cooking action worldwide.
    3. 585 GW of battery storage capacity and extension of transmission and distribution networks enable decentralized generation and consumption.
    4. 2 billion people access low-cost, clean vehicles and mobility solutions through the expansion of affordable public and private transport services.
    5. Transport infrastructure is resilient to climate hazards through the adoption of new technology, design, and materials.
  6. Planning
    1. 10,000 cities and 100 regional governments have evidence-based, actionable adaptation plans.
    2. 2,000 of the world’s largest companies develop actionable adaptation plans.
    3. Universal access to the tools and information required to integrate climate risks into decision-making from local to global levels.
    4. Operationalization of National Adaptation Plans and Locally-Led Principles, enabling adaptation in a country-driven localized, and consultative manner.
  7. Finance
    1. The private sector integrates physical climate risks into investment decisions and continues to innovate mechanisms for financing adaptation and resilience so as to enable the mobilization of the USD 140 to USD 300 billion that will be needed across both public and private sources.
    2. Public finance actors increase the provision of climate finance and allocate 50% of climate funds to adaptation and resilience.
    3. The global property and casualty insurance sector has an industry capabilities framework, actively supports project implementation, and institutionalizes a longer-term industry approach to climate adaptation.

Major initiatives announced in the COP 27 meeting:

  • International Climate Change University:
    • The President of Sri Lanka Ranil Wickremesinghe has proposed to set up an international climate change university in Sri Lanka, with an ancillary institution in the Maldives. It was reiterated that Sri Lanka and Maldives as island nations are vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change.
  • UAE-Egypt Deal:
    • The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt have struck a deal on the sidelines of the summit to develop one of the world’s largest wind farms.
    • Once completed, the 10 GW onshore wind project in Egypt will produce approximately 47,790 GWh of clean energy annually. This would offset nearly 9% (23.8 million tonnes) of Egypt’s current carbon dioxide emissions.

India’s Participation in COP27:

  • The Environment Minister of India Shri Bhupender Yadav is leading the Indian delegation to COP-27.
  • India would press developed countries to fulfil their commitment to delivering $100 billion of climate finance annually.
  • It would also press for enhanced transparency and more institutional mechanisms to make these funds available to developing countries that are most vulnerable to climate change.

For more information, read here: PIB Summary & Analysis for UPSC IAS Exam for 6th Nov 2022: COP 27

Related Links
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