CNA 21 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related GOVERNANCE 1. New data protection Bill INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. India’s Soft Loan Diplomacy C. GS 3 Related D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials INDIAN ECONOMY 1. Charting the economic journey ahead SOCIETY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 1. A place for all refugees under India’s welfare umbrella F. Prelims Facts 1. Loss and Damage Fund G. Tidbits 1. Operation Claw-Sword 2. Great Knot H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
Syllabus: Government Policies & Interventions for Development
Mains: Significance of Personal Data Protection
Context: The latest draft of the data protection law has been made open for public comments recently.
- The latest draft of the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022 (DPDP Bill, 2022) — has been made open for public comments. This is the fourth iteration of a data protection law in India.
- The current legal framework for privacy given in the IT Rules, 2011 proven to be ineffective to combat harms to data principals, especially since the right to informational privacy has been upheld as a fundamental right by the Apex Court in K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India 2017.
- The first draft, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018, was proposed by the Justice Srikrishna Committee.
- It was introduced as the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 (PDP Bill, 2019) in the Lok Sabha in 2019. The bill was referred to a joint committee of both the Houses of Parliament.
- The Joint Committee(JPC) submitted its report on the Bill in December, 2021 due to delays caused by the Covid19 pandemic.
- The report was accompanied by a new draft bill, namely, the Data Protection Bill, 2021 that incorporated the recommendations of the JPC.
- However, in August 2022 the government withdrew the PDP Bill, citing the report of the JPC and the “extensive changes” that the JPC had made to the 2019 Bill.
Reason behind revisions and changes:
- Unprecedented amounts of personal data being generated by users (data principals) coupled with today’s computational power available with companies (data fiduciaries) can be processed in ways that increasingly impair the autonomy, self-determination, freedom of choice and privacy of the data principal.
- The existing legal framework for privacy as per the Information Technology Rules, 2011 (IT Rules, 2011) is inadequate to combat such harms to data principals.
- It is inadequate on four levels-
- The existing framework is based on privacy being a statutory right rather than a fundamental right and does not apply to processing of personal data by the government.
- It has a limited understanding of the kinds of data to be protected.
- It places minimal obligations on the data fiduciaries which can be overridden by contract.
- There are only minimal consequences for the data fiduciaries for the breach of these obligations.
- India has struggled to come up with an optimum data protection law for several reasons.
- Data protection laws need to ensure that the compliances for data fiduciaries are not complex and difficult as to make even legitimate processing impractical while protecting the rights of the data principal.
- It is challenging to find an adequate balance between the right to privacy of data principles and reasonable exceptions, especially where government processing of personal data is concerned.
- An ideal data protection law design must be future-proof given the speed at which technology develops.
Scope of the present formulation of the Bill:
- The DPDP Bill, 2022 applies to all processing of personal data that is carried out digitally including personal data collected online and offline but is digitised for processing.
- In effect, by being completely inapplicable to data processed manually, this provides for a lower degree of protection.
- The Bill seems to exclude data processing by Indian data fiduciaries that collect and process personal data outside India, or data principals who are not located in India.
- The bill also exempts the application of most of its protections to personal data processing of non-residents of India by data fiduciaries in India.
- This would impact statutory protections available for clients of Indian start-ups operating overseas, thereby impacting their competitiveness.
Analysis of DPDP Bill, 2022:
- The current draft removes explicit reference to certain data protection principles such as collection limitation which would allow a data fiduciary to collect any personal data consented to by the data principal. This enables data collection solely based on consent.
- The 2022 Bill also does away with the concept of “sensitive personal data” and its additional protections.
- The Bill also reduces the information that a data fiduciary is required to provide to the data principal.
- A limiting notice to only consent based personal data processing would limit the scope for the exercise of data protection rights.
- There are some concerns around the concept of “deemed consent” due to the vaguely worded grounds for processing such as “public interest” and the removal of additional safeguards for protection of data principals’ interests.
- It recognises the right to post mortem privacy which was missing from the 2019 bill but had been recommended by the JPC.
- The right to post mortem privacy would allow the data principal to nominate another individual in case of death or incapacity.
Nut Graf: The Union government has recently released the revised draft Bill for consultation called the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill. However, digital rights activists opine that the bill is significantly simpler but still has a lot of grey areas and require several modifications before it is practical.
Syllabus: India and its Neighborhood – Relations
Mains: Analysis of India’s neighbourhood first policy
Context: Former foreign secretary and G-20 chief coordinator Harsh Vardhan Shringla recently spoke about India’s soft loan diplomacy in an event.
- India’s Lines of Credit (LOC) to its neighbour countries have increased from $3.27 billion in 2014 to $14.7 billion in 2020.
- The bulk of India’s worldwide soft lending (almost 50 percent) goes to its partners in the neighbourhood.
- The largest concessional credit given by India to any single country has been to Bangladesh ($8 billion).
- Sri Lanka has received support totalling over $1.4 billion of which $400 million was a currency swap and $500 million was loan deferment and $500 million LOC for fuel imports.
- The other countries that have received LOCs in the neighbourhood are Nepal ($1.65 billion), Myanmar (476 million) and Maldives ($1.3 billion).
- Overall, 306 LOCs worth $30.59 billion have been extended to 65 countries across the globe. The projects cover infrastructure, power generation, irrigation, healthcare and capacity building.
- Soft loans provided help in developing infrastructure for improved connectivity with India. India’s prosperity and growth are linked to that of its neighbours.
Read more on Indian Foreign Policy
Nut Graf: The volume of India’s soft loans to neighbouring countries has increased from about $3 billion to almost $15 billion in the last eight years. Expansion and strengthening of connectivity with its neighbour countries is an integral part of India’s economic and diplomatic initiatives which is based on universally recognised norms.
C. GS 3 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Syllabus: Indian economy and associated issues.
Mains: India’s economic history and future strategy.
- It is not greatly realized that the economic progress of India in the first half of the 20th century (under British rule) was extremely discouraging. According to a study, India’s annual growth rate was just 0.89% during that five decades.
- India’s population grew at a rate of 0.83%, whereas the per capita income growth stood at a mere 0.06%. Thus, economic growth became the most important concern for policymakers immediately after Independence.
- India would achieve the status of a developed economy by 2047 (100 years after independence). This implies that it should achieve a minimum per capita income equivalent to $13,000.
- Though India today is the fifth largest economy, in the context of per capita income, India’s rank was 142 out of 197 countries (in 2020).
Background Economic Details of India:
- The development strategy of India in the earlier period comprised four aspects:
- Increasing the savings and investment rate
- Dominance of state intervention
- Import substitution
- Domestic manufacturing of capital goods
- However, during the 1950s and 1960s there was a lack of a clear model for accelerating growth in all developing countries. It was observed during the 1970s that India’s model was not achieving its desired results and there was a need for major modifications.
- The average economic growth of the country till the end of the 1970s was 3.6%, with a population growth of 2.2%, and a per capita income growth rate of 1.4%.
- However, there were improvements in parameters like health, literacy rates, and life expectancy. There was also a breakthrough improvement in agriculture because of the Green Revolution.
- The actual growth was less than the projections. And the performance was not that impressive in comparison to other developing countries. It was only around that time, China made big changes in economic policies.
- The economy did register growth at 5.6% in the 1980s, but it was on the account of deteriorating fiscal and current account deficits.
- The economy faced the worst crisis in 1991-92. The three major changes were made:
- Dismantling the complex regime of licences and permits
- Redefining the role of the state
- Giving up the inward-looking trade policy
For more information on LPG reforms, read here: LPG Reforms in India – Significance & Effects [UPSC Notes]
- The annual GDP growth rate at factor cost in different time periods is given below:
|Time Period||Annual GDP growth|
|Between 1992-93 and 2000-01||6.20%|
|Between 2001-02 and 2012-13||7.4%|
|Between 2013-14 and 2019-20||6.7%|
- The best performance was registered during the time period of 2005-06 and 2010-11 with GDP reaching the figure of 8.8%. It should be noted that the growth occurred, despite the global crisis of 2008-09. The investment rate touched a peak of 39.1% in 2007-08.
- However, the economic growth suffered a setback after 2011-12. The rate declined to 4.5% in 2012-13. It further touched the 3.7% level in 2019-20.
Future course of action:
- Increase the growth rate:
- Research suggest that India should achieve a growth rate of 7% continuously for over two decades to achieve the status of a developed economy.
- For this, it is important to increase the Gross Fixed Capital Formation rate from 28% of GDP(currently) to 33% of GDP. Moreover, India should also maintain the incremental capital-output ratio at 4, reflecting the efficiency of capital usage.
- The public investment along with private investment (both corporate and non-corporate) should also increase. It should be remembered that price stability, sustained investment climate, and stable financial and fiscal system are important factors behind it.
- India should absorb new and emerging technologies.
- It also requires strong manufacturing and export sectors.
- Strengthen social safety nets:
- It should be remembered that Growth without equity is not sustainable and thus India should strengthen the system of social safety nets.
- Moreover, having an open economy with some restrictions is the best route to follow.
Nut Graf: India’s economic journey after Independence has seen several ups and downs before ultimately becoming the fifth largest economy in the world. But when it comes to per capita income growth, a lot needs to be done at a much faster pace. This will help in achieving the status of a developed economy by 2047.
Syllabus: Issues related to Women.
Mains: Gender-based violence and Gender equality.
Prelims: 16 Days of Activism.
Context: “16 Days of Activism” will be held from 25th November 2022.
- Annual “16 Days of Activism” against gender-based violence will be organized from 25th November 2022 (International Day Against Violence Against Women) to 10th December 2022 (International Human Rights Day).
- The global theme of 2022 is: “UNITE! Activism to end violence against women and girls”.
- It aims to ensure that gender and protection deficits are reversed. It is important to unite to end violence against women and girls and empower them. Moreover, men should also be supported to become agents of change.
- The world faces an overall increase in domestic violence, trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation, and abuse.
- Women face a disproportionate burden due to conflict situations like Russia-Ukraine War, a coup in Myanmar, and a Taliban takeover in Afghanistan, as they are forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in other countries.
- The women of India were awarded suffrage during India’s independence in 1947.
- India played a crucial role in ensuring gender-sensitive norms while drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For instance, the language of ‘all men are created equal’ was changed to ‘all human beings are created equal ’.
- India has also ratified key international conventions like the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).
- Indian Women have also overcome “the glass ceiling” in the armed forces and are now allowed to serve as commanders (since 2020). Moreover, India accounts for the largest number of women in the United Nations peacekeeping forces, thus implying the equal role that women can play in conflict-struck territories.
- The government at both central and state levels has launched various schemes/policies to support girls/women in both urban and rural areas. For example, the ‘Nari Shakti for New India’ campaign represents the aspirations of millions of women and even provides them the opportunity to lead.
Case of Refugee Women:
- There are approximately 2,12,000 refugees in India. The government ensures that refugees can access protection services similar to Indian citizens.
- Moreover, refugees registered directly by the Government like those from Sri Lanka are also entitled to Aadhaar cards and PAN cards for economic and financial inclusion. They can also access welfare schemes.
- However, refugees registered with the UNHCR can access protection and limited assistance services only and are thus inadvertently left behind.
“The progress of humanity is incomplete without the empowerment of women”.
– Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi
Related Link: Gender Inequality In India – UPSC Preparation Strategy
Nut Graf: India has taken several steps to ensure women’s protection and empowerment. The commitment of India to prioritize gender equality is highly commendable. However, some more measures are required, particularly in the context of refugee women.
F. Prelims Facts
Prelims: UNFCCC, Conference of Parties
Context: Delegates at the COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt agreed to establish a loss and damage (L&D) fund.
- Countries at COP27 agreed to set up a fund to compensate the most vulnerable countries from climate-linked disasters.
- Crucial questions with respect to the fund have been left to a “transitional committee” that will make recommendations for the adoption of the fund at the next Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UN’s Framework Convention for Climate Change, to be held in the UAE in 2023.
- COP27 saw nearly 45,000 participants, including indigenous peoples, civil society, youth and children.
- The expected monetary compensation from the L&D fund is estimated to be nearly $500 billion and rising by $200 billion annually.
- A summary document of all the major decisions taken, called the Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan, highlighted that a global transformation to a low-carbon economy is expected to require investments of at least $4-6 trillion a year.
Loss and Damage:
- Loss and Damage refer to the negative consequences of climate change on human societies and the natural environment.
- Climate change is affecting the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of extreme weather events such as storms, floods and heatwaves, and slow-onset events such as sea level rise, ocean acidification, loss of biodiversity and desertification. All of these result in loss and damage, both economic and non-economic.
- The Loss and Damage debate has been contentious within the international climate negotiations because of questions of fairness and equity, and proving historical responsibility for climate change.
- Turkey recently carried out air strikes against the bases of outlawed Kurdish militants across northern Syria and Iraq.
- The offensive was codenamed Operation Claw-Sword.
- These bases were being used to launch “terrorist” attacks on Turkish soil. A blast in central Istanbul killed six people and wounded 81 recently. Turkey blamed the attack on the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).
- The raids targeted PKK bases in northern Iraq’s mountainous regions of Kandil, Asos and Hakurk, as well as bases of the Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG), in Ayn al-Arab (called Kobane in Kurdish), Tal Rifaat, Jazira and Derik regions in Syria.
- In recent years, Turkey has conducted a number of cross-border operations targeting Kurdish groups based in northern Iraq and Syria, aiming to prevent attacks on Turkish territory.
2. Great Knot
- A great knot from Russia, belonging to the endangered Calidris tenuirostris was recently seen on the Chavakkad beach, Kerala, flying over 9,000 km for a winter sojourn.
- The migratory bird traversed the Central Asian Flyway (CAF). It is only one of the two — the other has been sighted at Jamnagar in Gujarat — great knots to be re-sighted in India among the nearly thousand ones tagged with MOSKVA rings in the Kamchatka peninsula in eastern Russia.
- These long-distance migrants stay in the Yellow Sea region and Thailand in southeast Asia before proceeding to their southerly winter grounds, including Peninsular India along the CAF.
- The great knot is a small wader. It is the largest of the calidrid species.
- Their breeding habitat is tundra in northeast Siberia. They nest on the ground laying about four eggs in a ground scrape. They are strongly migratory wintering on coasts in southern Asia through to Australia. This species forms enormous flocks in winter.
- They are listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Great Knot’ recently seen in news: (Level- Difficult)
- It is a small wader and smallest of the calidrid species.
- It is classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red-List.
- It is an international migratory bird that travels vast distances between the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere.
How many of the given statements is/are correct?
- One statement only
- Two statements only
- All three Statements
- None of the above
- Statement 01 is incorrect, The great knot is a small wader. It is the largest of the calidrid species.
- Statement 02 is incorrect, They are listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
- Statement 03 is correct, They are long-distance migrants and they stay in the Yellow Sea region and Thailand in southeast Asia before proceeding to their southerly winter grounds, including Peninsular India along the Central Asian Flyway.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Powerplant: (Level- Medium)
- It is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe.
- It is located in the Donbas region and is controlled by Russia.
- It is the only Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine and accounts for one-fifth of Ukraine’s annual electricity production.
How many of the given statements is/are INCORRECT?
- One statement only
- Two statements only
- All three Statements
- None of the above
- Statement 01 is correct, Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe.
- Statement 02 is incorrect, It was built by the Soviet Union near the city of Enerhodar, on the southern shore of the Kakhovka Reservoir on the Dnieper river just 200 kilometres from the conflicted Donbas region. It is controlled by Ukraine.
- Statement 03 is incorrect, Zaporizhzhya is one of the four operating NPPs in Ukraine and has been operating since 1984. It accounts for about 40% of the total electricity generated by all the Ukrainian NPPs and one-fifth of Ukraine’s annual electricity production.
Q3. Twin-balance sheet problem is a result of (Level- Medium)
- Over-leveraged corporate sector
- Under-leveraged corporate sector
- Growing Fiscal Deficit
- Bad loan encumbered banks
Choose the correct option:
- 1 and 3 only
- 2 and 4 only
- 1 and 4 only
- 2 and 3 only
Explanation: The Twin Balance Sheet problem refers to the situation of overleveraged companies on one hand and bad-loan-encumbered banks on the other.
Q4. Which of the given statements best describes the ‘SVASTIK’ initiative recently seen in the news? (Level- Difficult)
- An initiative of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj to facilitate survey of villages and mapping with improvised technology in village areas.
- An initiative by NITI Aayog launched in the aspirational districts for disinfection of water and removing pathogenic microorganisms that cause water-borne diseases.
- An initiative by CSIR-NIScPR to conserve and communicate on India’s scientifically validated traditional knowledge.
- An initiative of the Border Roads Organisation to educate children of Casual Paid Labourers.
- A team of scientists from CSIR-NIScPR has launched this initiative with a brand name “SVASTIK”- Scientifically Validated Societal Traditional Knowledge. As a part of this initiative, simplified creative content on Traditional Knowledge is being disseminated through digital platforms in English, Hindi, and different regional languages.
- SVASTIK’s objective is to conserve the practice of the right tradition, inculcate scientific temper of verifying tradition in a scientific manner and instil confidence in citizens regarding the scientific value of our traditional knowledge/practices.
Q5. With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements: (Level- Difficult) (PYQ-CSE-2017)
- Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.
- Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
- Statement 01 is incorrect, Sautrantika and Sammitya were the sects of Buddhism.
- Statement 02 is correct, Sarvastivadins (They who say “All is”), had the view that the constituents of phenomena (dharmas) were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- India lacks an effective personal data protection legal framework despite being a top data contributing nation. In this light, critically examine the recent developments. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-2; Polity)
- Women refugees always bear a disproportionate burden in any conflict or distress situation. Evaluate the status of refugees in India and what can be done to promote the welfare of women refugees in particular? (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-2; Governance)
Read the previous CNA here.
CNA 21 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here