# 27 Nov 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 27 Nov 2022:-

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
CONSTITUTION
1. Murmu, Modi laud women’s role in drafting Constitution
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Mumbai measles outbreak due to low vaccination coverage
C. GS 3 Related
INDIAN ECONOMY
1. Industry urges govt. to establish ‘India Rare Earths Mission’ to reduce
reliance on China
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIAL JUSTICE
1. Preventing suicides: what is the new strategy?
INDIAN ECONOMY
1. Why is the Darjeeling Tea industry in crisis?
F. Prelims Facts
1. PSLV-C54 successfully places nine satellites in multiple orbits
G. Tidbits
1. India is the lone absentee at China’s Indian Ocean forum of 19 countries
2. Scientists discover new species of black corals near Australia
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


1. Mumbai measles outbreak due to low vaccination coverage

Syllabus: Issues related to health.

Mains: Measles outbreak in India.

Prelims: Measles.

Context: Rising number of measles cases in Mumbai

Details:

• According to the WHO data of 23 November 2022, approximately 40 million children across the world missed a measles vaccine dose in a span of one year. It resulted in nine million estimated cases of measles and around 1,28,000 deaths in 2021.

Measles outbreak in India:

• The major reasons for the outbreak of measles in Mumbai are lower immunization coverage because of vaccine services disruption and parents’ hesitancy to get their children vaccinated.
• There were around 233 measles infections and 13 deaths in Mumbai as of November 24. And the total number of confirmed cases in Maharashtra in October 2022 was nearly 538.
• The increased number of cases was also reported from Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, and Kerala.
• The Health Ministry reported through a letter that in these geographies, the average coverage of MRCV [Measles and Rubella containing vaccine] among the eligible beneficiaries is considerably lower than the national average.
• Some sources suggest that unvaccinated children have approximately 70% higher mortality risk than vaccinated children.
• According to Maharashtra health officials, measles vaccination coverage in Mumbai was 78%  in 2021. Whereas in 2022 (till October) the coverage in the city was just 41.9%.
• The incidence rate of measles has increased from 3.37 per one million total population (October 2020-September 2021) to 8.86 per one million total population (October 2021-September 2022).
• It was explained by an expert that “Two-dose vaccination” coverage is crucial to interrupt measles transmission. For instance, if 80 of 100 children are vaccinated with one dose then only 68 children are immunized implying 85% seroconversion. This would leave 22 (of 100 children) susceptible to infection. It should be noted that if this continues for two years, the susceptible pool expands.

For more information on the Measles rubella campaign, read here: Measles and Rubella Vaccination Campaign – MR Vaccine Campaign. UPSC Notes.

Mop-up vaccination campaign:

• The Maharashtra government has undertaken a mop-up vaccination of all children with MRCV in regions of the recent outbreak. This dose will be in addition to the primary vaccination schedule for the first and the second dose.
• It is recommended that infants of six months and older should also be administered a measles vaccine.
• According to an expert, the efficacy of measles vaccination is estimated to be 85% on average if the first dose is administered at nine months. It further rises to nearly 95% at the administration of the second dose.
• However, few vaccinated children in Mumbai and Mallapuram districts in Kerala were infected with the disease even after two doses. This could possibly be due to the failure to seroconvert following vaccination.

Nut Graf: There is an outbreak of measles in six states of India due to low vaccination coverage. The situation is particularly worrisome in Mumbai. The two doses of vaccination among all children till the age of five years can help in significantly controlling the infection.

G. Tidbits

1. India is the lone absentee at China’s Indian Ocean forum of 19 countries

• The first “China-Indian Ocean Region Forum” was convened by China.
• The initiative would bring together 19 neighboring countries of India together. These countries are Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Afghanistan, Iran, Oman, South Africa, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, Djibouti, and Australia.
• The forum is being held in Kunming in southwestern Yunnan province of China and the organizers are China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA).
• The forum focuses on China’s increased diplomacy in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
• However, India was not invited to the forum and was the lone absentee in the new strategic initiative of Beijing.

2. Scientists discover new species of black corals near Australia

• The researchers at Smithsonian Institution, Washington, have discovered 5 new species of black coral through a remote-controlled submarine.
• These corals are at a depth of nearly 2,500 feet (760 metres) below the surface in the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea off the coast of Australia.
• It should be noted that Black corals can grow both in shallow waters and deep waters of around 26,000 feet (8,000 metres). Moreover, few individual corals can live for over 4,000 years.
• Black corals are filter feeders and eat tiny zooplankton. They are branched and look like feathers, fans, or bushes.
• They act as important habitats for fish and invertebrates to feed and hide from predators. For instance, a single black coral colony observed in 2005 off the coast of California was a habitat to nearly 2,554 individual invertebrates.

For more information on coral reefs, read here: Types of Coral Reefs, Coral Bleaching & Snowflake Corals

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1.  Which of the following statements are correct? (Level- Moderate)
1. Registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Registration of Birth and Death (RBD) Act, 1969.
2. Violating the act is a punishable offence.
3. The MHA is upgrading the Civil Registration System (CRS) to enable registration of births and deaths in real time with minimum human interface.

Options:

1. 1 only
2. 1 and 2 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct: Registration of Births and Deaths in India is compulsory under the ambit of Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD), Act 1969. It is done on the basis of place of occurrence.
• Statement 2 is correct: Violation of the act is a punishable offence. RBD Act imposes various penalties.
• Statement 3 is correct: Ministry of Home Affairs has suggested certain amendments to the existing act. One of the proposed amendments is upgrading the Civil Registration System (CRS) to enable registration of births and deaths in real time with minimum human interface.
Q2. Which of the following statements are incorrect? (Level- Difficult)
1. Sacred groves are communally protected forests that usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community.
2. Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these groves and collection of forest produce is sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis.
3. Sacred groves have been legally protected under ‘community reserves’ in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002.

Options:

1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. 3 only
4. None

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct: Sacred groves also called sacred woods are communally protected areas that have special religious importance within a particular culture.
• Statement 2 is correct: Activities like hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited in these areas. However, collection of forest produce is allowed sometimes on a sustainable basis.
• Statement 3 is correct: The Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 protects the sacred groves under ‘community reserves’.
Q3. The Gutti Koya tribe is mainly found in the states of – (Level- Moderate)
1. Jharkhand
2. Telangana
4. Both b and c

Explanation:

• The Gutti Koya tribe is found in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, near the Godavari and Sabari rivers. They are listed as Scheduled Tribe.
• They are ‘settled cultivators’ and cultivate Jowar, Bajra and other millets.
• They practice Podu Cultivation which in simple terms is slash-and-burn farming.
• Language: Only a few of them speak their Koya dialect since it is a forgotten dialect and presently, they speak Telugu and consider it their mother tongue.
Q4.  Which of the following statements are correct? (Level- Moderate)
1. Himalayan Yak is found in India.
2. They are not domesticated and only found in the wild.
3. The yak plays a multidimensional socio-cultural-economic role for the pastoral nomads.

Options:

1. 1 only
2. 1 and 2 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. None

Explanation:

• Statement 1 is correct: The Himalayan yaks are found in Union Territories of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal and Uttarakhand.The total yak population in India is about 58,000.
• Statement 2 is incorrect: Himalayan yaks are domestic animals.
• Statement 3 is correct: They are the lifeline for pastoral nomads living in the higher reaches of the Himalayas as it provides them milk, fibre, and meat.
Q5. In the Indian history, The Rakhmabai case of 1884 revolved around(Level-Moderate)
1. Women’s rights to gain education
2. Age of consent
3. Restitution of conjugal rights

Select the correct answer using the given code below-

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

• The Rukhmabai case was instrumental in the drafting of the Age of Consent Act in 1891.
• Dr. Rukhmabai (1864 –1955) was an Indian physician and feminist. She is best known for being one of the first practising women doctors in colonial India. She is also associated with the landmark case involving her marriage as a child bride between 1884 and 1888.
• She was married off at the young age of 11 with Dadaji Bhikaji(19). In 1885, after 12 years of marriage, Bhikaji filed a petition in the court and sought “restitution of conjugal rights”.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

1. India needs a proactive approach to counter China’s growing dominance over the rare earth metals. Elaborate. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-3; Science and Technology)
2. Discuss some of the problems faced by Darjeeling tea growers. How can the government resolve these issues? (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-3; Agriculture)