CNA 27 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related CONSTITUTION 1. Murmu, Modi laud women’s role in drafting Constitution SOCIAL JUSTICE 1. Mumbai measles outbreak due to low vaccination coverage C. GS 3 Related INDIAN ECONOMY 1. Industry urges govt. to establish ‘India Rare Earths Mission’ to reduce reliance on China D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials SOCIAL JUSTICE 1. Preventing suicides: what is the new strategy? INDIAN ECONOMY 1. Why is the Darjeeling Tea industry in crisis? F. Prelims Facts 1. PSLV-C54 successfully places nine satellites in multiple orbits G. Tidbits 1. India is the lone absentee at China’s Indian Ocean forum of 19 countries 2. Scientists discover new species of black corals near Australia H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
Syllabus: Indian Constitution.
Mains: Role of Women in drafting the constitution.
Prelims: Constitution day.
Context: Constitution day was celebrated on 26th November.
- The Constitution Day celebration was organized by the Supreme Court of India.
- President Droupadi Murmu and Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the celebration. They lauded the role of women in the Constituent Assembly that drafted the Constitution.
- November 26 is observed as Constitution Day. It was the day on which the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution in the year 1949.
- The day has been celebrated as Constitution day since 2015. Earlier it was observed as Law Day.
- President Droupadi Murmu urged the executive, judiciary, and legislature to evolve an effective dispute-resolution mechanism and mitigate the common man’s plight.
- During the event, the Chief Justice of India highlighted the significance of technology in justice administration. He further stressed the need to have more representation from marginalized communities in the legal profession.
For more information on the Constitution of India, read here: Constitution of India – Features, Amendments & Preamble
Role of Women in drafting the Constitution:
- The Constituent Assembly had fifteen women members.
- Dakshayini Velayudhan belonged to a marginalized community and made important interventions for protecting the rights of the oppressed classes.
- Other Women members included Durgabai Deshmukh, Hansa Mehta, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, etc.
Nut Graf: Constitution Day was celebrated at the Supreme Court. The President and Prime Minister highlighted the role of Women in drafting the constitution of India.
Syllabus: Issues related to health.
Mains: Measles outbreak in India.
Context: Rising number of measles cases in Mumbai
- According to the WHO data of 23 November 2022, approximately 40 million children across the world missed a measles vaccine dose in a span of one year. It resulted in nine million estimated cases of measles and around 1,28,000 deaths in 2021.
Measles outbreak in India:
- The major reasons for the outbreak of measles in Mumbai are lower immunization coverage because of vaccine services disruption and parents’ hesitancy to get their children vaccinated.
- There were around 233 measles infections and 13 deaths in Mumbai as of November 24. And the total number of confirmed cases in Maharashtra in October 2022 was nearly 538.
- The increased number of cases was also reported from Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, and Kerala.
- The Health Ministry reported through a letter that in these geographies, the average coverage of MRCV [Measles and Rubella containing vaccine] among the eligible beneficiaries is considerably lower than the national average.
- Some sources suggest that unvaccinated children have approximately 70% higher mortality risk than vaccinated children.
- According to Maharashtra health officials, measles vaccination coverage in Mumbai was 78% in 2021. Whereas in 2022 (till October) the coverage in the city was just 41.9%.
- The incidence rate of measles has increased from 3.37 per one million total population (October 2020-September 2021) to 8.86 per one million total population (October 2021-September 2022).
- It was explained by an expert that “Two-dose vaccination” coverage is crucial to interrupt measles transmission. For instance, if 80 of 100 children are vaccinated with one dose then only 68 children are immunized implying 85% seroconversion. This would leave 22 (of 100 children) susceptible to infection. It should be noted that if this continues for two years, the susceptible pool expands.
For more information on the Measles rubella campaign, read here: Measles and Rubella Vaccination Campaign – MR Vaccine Campaign. UPSC Notes.
Mop-up vaccination campaign:
- The Maharashtra government has undertaken a mop-up vaccination of all children with MRCV in regions of the recent outbreak. This dose will be in addition to the primary vaccination schedule for the first and the second dose.
- It is recommended that infants of six months and older should also be administered a measles vaccine.
- According to an expert, the efficacy of measles vaccination is estimated to be 85% on average if the first dose is administered at nine months. It further rises to nearly 95% at the administration of the second dose.
- However, few vaccinated children in Mumbai and Mallapuram districts in Kerala were infected with the disease even after two doses. This could possibly be due to the failure to seroconvert following vaccination.
Nut Graf: There is an outbreak of measles in six states of India due to low vaccination coverage. The situation is particularly worrisome in Mumbai. The two doses of vaccination among all children till the age of five years can help in significantly controlling the infection.
C. GS 3 Related
Syllabus: Issues relating to mineral resources.
Mains: Rare earth minerals.
- Industries in India have urged the government to allow private-sector mining of critical rare earth minerals. This would help in diversifying the sources of supply of these strategic raw materials.
- Moreover, it would counter India’s reliance on imports from China.
- The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has suggested establishing an ‘India Rare Earths Mission’ on the lines of the India Semiconductor Mission. The exploration of these minerals should be made a critical component of the Deep Ocean Mission plan.
- CII suggested that such minerals should not be held captive to the Civil Nuclear Programme of India and should instead split Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL) into two entities. IREL should focus on Thorium mining, whereas a second entity should focus on other minerals.
- Furthermore, it was stressed that rare earth minerals should be made a part of Make in India on the lines of the ‘Made in China 2025’ initiative of China. It should be noted that the initiative focuses on new materials including permanent magnets( made from rare earth minerals).
For more information on Deep Ocean Mission, read here: India’s Deep Ocean Mission – DOM | Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)
- India has 6% of the world’s rare earth reserves. However, it produces only 1% of global output and imports the rest from China.
- 92% of rare earth metal imports by value and 97% by quantity were sourced from China in the year 2018-19.
For more information on rare earth minerals, read here: Rare Earth Minerals – An Overview of Reserves in India [UPSC Notes]
Nut Graf: To reduce the dependence of India on imports of rare earth minerals and become self-reliant in its production, the Confederation of Indian Industries has suggested various steps. It has further focused on strengthening the role of private industries in this sector.
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Syllabus: Issues related to health.
Mains: Deaths associated with suicides.
Prelims: National Strategy for Suicide Prevention
Context: Release of National Strategy for suicide prevention.
- The nation’s first-ever National Strategy for Suicide Prevention was released by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- It is structured similar to World Health Organization’s guidelines for Suicide Prevention in the South East Asian region. The strategy aims to adhere to the social and cultural requirements of India giving adequate recognition to field-level infrastructure.
- The vision of the strategy is to “create a society, where people value their lives and are supported when they are in need”.
- Its objective is to reduce suicide mortality in India by 10% by the year 2030.
- The framework has a multi-stakeholder approach for the prevention of suicides in India. The intent is to synthesize stakeholder efforts with the motto of ‘energize to synergize’.
- The framework will guide every stakeholder to set targets, implement, monitor, and take corrective actions to prevent suicides.
For more information on Mental Health, read here: Mental Health Care – India’s Ticking Bomb? – BYJU’S
Need for Suicide Prevention Plan:
- As per the WHO data (2018), there were approximately 8 lakh deaths due to suicide across the world due to suicides.
- Nearly one-third of suicides occur among young people.
- The second leading cause of death among people aged between 15-29 years is suicide. It is also the second leading cause of death among females of age 15-19 years.
- Suicide is the number one cause of death among the 15-29 years population in India. The figures exceed those caused by road accidents and maternal mortality.
- The contribution of India’s share due to suicide in the world has increased from 25.3% in 1990 to 36.6% in 2016 among women. Among men, it has increased from 18.7% to 24.3%.
- Nearly 1 lakh lives are lost annually in India owing to suicide.
- The suicide rates have risen from 10.2 to 11.3 per 1,00,000 population in the previous three years.
- It was highlighted that unprecedented event like COVID-19 impact mental health and require special interventions.
- The most common causes of suicide are family problems and illnesses, accounting for 34% and 18% of all suicide-related deaths in India respectively. Other reasons are bankruptcy/indebtedness, love affairs, marital conflicts, substance use, and dependence.
Highlights of the strategy:
- It involves a multiple stakeholders approach to prevent suicide. The Centre, the State and regional governance institutions, and the voluntary sector would have significant roles.
- Ministries of Agriculture, Home Affairs, Information and Broadcasting, Labour, Social Justice and Empowerment, Education, Women and Child Development, Information Technology, Youth Affairs, and Sports will be involved in implementing the strategy.
- The National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) would have a significant role in offering to implement support.
- The strategy would establish an effective surveillance mechanism for suicide prevention in the next three years.
- Moreover, it will also set up psychiatric OPD in the next 5 years in all districts through the district mental health plan.
- The mental well-being curriculum would be integrated into all educational institutes within the next 8 years.
- Another major component of the strategy is stigma reduction. It is observed that stigma is a major hurdle in the process of seeking counseling and treatment.
- The framework also includes sensitive India-specific issues like easy accessibility of pesticides. It leverages the media to spread awareness, de-stigmatize mental health, and promote responsible media reporting of suicide.
- Another key part of the strategy is strengthening data collection associated with suicides.
- It would also develop community resilience and societal support for suicide prevention.
Future Course of Action:
- According to experts, the priority areas should include reinforcing leadership, establishing institutional capacity, enhancing health services to provide suicide prevention, strengthening surveillance, and ensuring provisions for evidence generation.
- The political will should match the actual ground-level implementation.
Nut Graf: Considering suicide to be a public health emergency, the government has proposed a National Strategy for Suicide prevention. It is a multi-stakeholder approach that aims to reduce the number of suicidal deaths in the country.
Syllabus: Industry- Tea.
Mains: Darjeeling Tea industry crisis.
Context: Darjeeling tea industry is facing acute stress.
- The Tea Board of India had sought a special financial package of ₹1,000 crore from the Union government as Indian Tea has not been able to appropriately establish itself across the world. Moreover, Darjeeling Tea is under acute pressure.
- Darjeeling Tea:
- It is referred to as the ‘Champagne of Teas’.
- It was the first product in India to get the GI (Geographical Identification) tag in 2004 for its unique aroma and flavour.
- There are nearly 87 gardens in Darjeeling, employing approximately 55,000 workers to produce about 7 million kg of tea.
For more information on the Tea Board of India, read here: Tea Board of India – Organising Committee and Responsibilities
Challenges/Issues with the Tea industry in India:
- According to a report by the Parliamentary Standing Committee of the Ministry of Commerce, the influx of substandard tea from countries like Nepal jeopardizes the tea industry in India.
- As per the Revised Treaty of Trade between the Governments of India and Nepal in October 2009, both countries exempted the import of mutually agreed primary products from basic customs duty and quantitative restrictions.
- The Tea Association of India’s data points out that the total tea imported from Nepal in the year 2020-21 was 10.74 million kg; whereas the total tea imports from India was 27.75 million kg.
- It was highlighted that Nepal produces tea at a lower price owing to factors like fewer input costs, specifically labour, and fewer quality checks. However, the quality is inferior in comparison to Darjeeling Tea.
- Due to 107- day agitation and shutdown in the Darjeeling hills in 2017 tea production was halted. The production hit a low of 3.21 million kg. This resulted in increasing the pace of imported tea varieties from Nepal.
- Various Tea planters and industry experts have admitted that the industry has not yet completely recovered from the 2017 crisis.
- Apart from the reduction in production, increased input costs is another cause of concern. Tea production in Darjeeling which earlier stood at 10-12 million kg has declined to 6.87 million kg (2021).
- Other factors are climate change, declining yields, and high absenteeism among workers.
- Moreover, due to the hilly terrain of Darjeeling, there is no land left for the expansion of tea gardens.
- The tea bushes in Darjeeling are older than in other parts of the country. The process of uprooting and planting them is both time and cost-intensive.
- It should be noted that the average tea garden in Darjeeling is around 150 hectares in contrast to 400 to 500 hectares of foothills. The average yield per hectare of Darjeeling Tea is around 350 kg currently as against 542 kg in 2000.
- According to the planters, the prices of the auction of Darjeeling Tea have stagnated.
- The Indian Tea Association points out that prices of Darjeeling Tea in the last 6 years have increased at a cumulative annual growth rate(CAGR) of only 1.7%, even though the cost of input has increased by 10% to 12% CAGR.
- The notification of the Tea Board of India (2021) restricted the import and distribution of cheap quality tea. It further asked those packaging the tea to indicate the source of origin. This resulted in ‘Packeteers’ decreasing their purchase of Darjeeling tea.
- Other factors like the decline in demand from European markets due to the Russia-Ukraine war have compounded the problem.
- The Standing Committee of Parliament suggested that the Government should review and revisit the Indo-Nepal Treaty.
- It also recommended that Small Tea Growers (STGs) should also be recognized as GI-registered producers on a par with the 87 tea estates for ensuring better price premiums.
- It should be remembered that around 52% of tea in the country is produced by STGs.
- Industry experts suggested that the domestic consumption of tea in India should be raised as the per capita tea consumption in India is only 850 grams.
Related Link: Tea rop
Nut Graf: The Darjeeling Tea industry is under acute crisis due to various reasons. The need of the hour is adequate assistance from the government both in terms of finance as well as guidelines to boost its business.
F. Prelims Facts
Category: GS 3, Science and Technology.
Syllabus: Awareness in the field of space.
Context: ISRO launches PSLV-C54.
- This is one of the longest missions of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
- Out of the total nine satellites, eight were nanosatellites including ISRO Nano Satellite-2 for Bhutan (INS-2B), Anand, Astrocast (four satellites), and two Thybolt satellites.
- This was the 56th flight of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the 24th flight of the PSLV-XL version with 6 PSOM-XLs.
- A collaborative mission between India and Bhutan, the INS-2B satellite has 2 payloads:
- NanoMx developed by SAC
- APRS-Digipeater jointly prepared by DITT-Bhutan and URSC
For more information on PSLV, read here: Satellite Launch Vehicle Program – PSLV & GSLV [UPSC GS 3 Notes]
- The first “China-Indian Ocean Region Forum” was convened by China.
- The initiative would bring together 19 neighboring countries of India together. These countries are Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Afghanistan, Iran, Oman, South Africa, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, Djibouti, and Australia.
- The forum is being held in Kunming in southwestern Yunnan province of China and the organizers are China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA).
- The forum focuses on China’s increased diplomacy in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
- However, India was not invited to the forum and was the lone absentee in the new strategic initiative of Beijing.
- The researchers at Smithsonian Institution, Washington, have discovered 5 new species of black coral through a remote-controlled submarine.
- These corals are at a depth of nearly 2,500 feet (760 metres) below the surface in the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea off the coast of Australia.
- It should be noted that Black corals can grow both in shallow waters and deep waters of around 26,000 feet (8,000 metres). Moreover, few individual corals can live for over 4,000 years.
- Black corals are filter feeders and eat tiny zooplankton. They are branched and look like feathers, fans, or bushes.
- They act as important habitats for fish and invertebrates to feed and hide from predators. For instance, a single black coral colony observed in 2005 off the coast of California was a habitat to nearly 2,554 individual invertebrates.
For more information on coral reefs, read here: Types of Coral Reefs, Coral Bleaching & Snowflake Corals
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. Which of the following statements are correct? (Level- Moderate)
- Registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Registration of Birth and Death (RBD) Act, 1969.
- Violating the act is a punishable offence.
- The MHA is upgrading the Civil Registration System (CRS) to enable registration of births and deaths in real time with minimum human interface.
- 1 only
- 1 and 2 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- Statement 1 is correct: Registration of Births and Deaths in India is compulsory under the ambit of Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD), Act 1969. It is done on the basis of place of occurrence.
- Statement 2 is correct: Violation of the act is a punishable offence. RBD Act imposes various penalties.
- Statement 3 is correct: Ministry of Home Affairs has suggested certain amendments to the existing act. One of the proposed amendments is upgrading the Civil Registration System (CRS) to enable registration of births and deaths in real time with minimum human interface.
Q2. Which of the following statements are incorrect? (Level- Difficult)
- Sacred groves are communally protected forests that usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community.
- Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these groves and collection of forest produce is sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis.
- Sacred groves have been legally protected under ‘community reserves’ in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002.
- 1 only
- 2 only
- 3 only
- Statement 1 is correct: Sacred groves also called sacred woods are communally protected areas that have special religious importance within a particular culture.
- Statement 2 is correct: Activities like hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited in these areas. However, collection of forest produce is allowed sometimes on a sustainable basis.
- Statement 3 is correct: The Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 protects the sacred groves under ‘community reserves’.
Q3. The Gutti Koya tribe is mainly found in the states of – (Level- Moderate)
- Andhra Pradesh
- Both b and c
- The Gutti Koya tribe is found in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, near the Godavari and Sabari rivers. They are listed as Scheduled Tribe.
- They are ‘settled cultivators’ and cultivate Jowar, Bajra and other millets.
- They practice Podu Cultivation which in simple terms is slash-and-burn farming.
- Language: Only a few of them speak their Koya dialect since it is a forgotten dialect and presently, they speak Telugu and consider it their mother tongue.
Q4. Which of the following statements are correct? (Level- Moderate)
- Himalayan Yak is found in India.
- They are not domesticated and only found in the wild.
- The yak plays a multidimensional socio-cultural-economic role for the pastoral nomads.
- 1 only
- 1 and 2 only
- 1 and 3 only
- Statement 1 is correct: The Himalayan yaks are found in Union Territories of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal and Uttarakhand.The total yak population in India is about 58,000.
- Statement 2 is incorrect: Himalayan yaks are domestic animals.
- Statement 3 is correct: They are the lifeline for pastoral nomads living in the higher reaches of the Himalayas as it provides them milk, fibre, and meat.
Q5. In the Indian history, The Rakhmabai case of 1884 revolved around(Level-Moderate)
- Women’s rights to gain education
- Age of consent
- Restitution of conjugal rights
Select the correct answer using the given code below-
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- The Rukhmabai case was instrumental in the drafting of the Age of Consent Act in 1891.
- Dr. Rukhmabai (1864 –1955) was an Indian physician and feminist. She is best known for being one of the first practising women doctors in colonial India. She is also associated with the landmark case involving her marriage as a child bride between 1884 and 1888.
- She was married off at the young age of 11 with Dadaji Bhikaji(19). In 1885, after 12 years of marriage, Bhikaji filed a petition in the court and sought “restitution of conjugal rights”.
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- India needs a proactive approach to counter China’s growing dominance over the rare earth metals. Elaborate. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-3; Science and Technology)
- Discuss some of the problems faced by Darjeeling tea growers. How can the government resolve these issues? (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-3; Agriculture)
Read the previous CNA here.
CNA 27 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here