NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 – Free PDF Download
*According to the latest CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been removed.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production is an important topic for students to learn. It elaborates on the various techniques and processes important in animal husbandry and agriculture. From an examination perspective, it is very important for students to study this topic. Past trends indicate that a significant number of questions have been asked about this topic. So, students are advised to study this topic using the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology with utmost priority to score well in the board exams.
Students aspiring to make a career in the medical field must certainly practise and solve the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology in order to score well at the examinations as well as the competitive entrance examinations. Since the solutions have been provided by the subject-matter experts, students will find the solutions to be simple and easy to understand.
The NCERT Solutions are solved as per the CBSE Board guidelines and thereby adhere to the standards. Also, the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 are framed according to the latest syllabus of the CBSE Board.
Access Answers to NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 – Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture associated with rearing animals for their meat, eggs, milk, fibre and other products of commercial significance. It includes caring for animals on a day-to-day basis, performing selective breeding and a host of other related activities. It became an essential part of human welfare ever since humans moved on from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. The following are the roles of animal husbandry in human welfare:
- Production of meat: Meat is a valuable source of energy and dietary proteins.
- Production of dairy products: Animal husbandry provides a wide range of dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee and curd. These may be further processed for other commercial products such as ice creams and cottage cheese (paneer).
- Production of fibre: Animals such as sheep and goats are primarily reared for their wool. Insects such as silkworms are highly valuable from a commercial perspective.
- Labour: Certain animals, such as horses, donkeys and buffaloes, are well-suited for mechanical labour. They are cost-effective and very efficient. Before industrialisation, it was the only non-human source of mechanical labour.
- Production of fertilisers: Fertilisers are quite crucial for plant growth. Furthermore, natural fertilisers provide other benefits, such as an alternate source of fuel and insulation.
2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
The quality and quantity of milk are primarily dependent upon the type of breed. Aside from this, the following are a few measures that an individual or a dairy farmer should take to improve the quality and quantity of milk production:
- Dairy cows or other milk-producing animals have to be kept in well-ventilated housing.
- An adequate supply of clean water must be provided.
- Emphasis should be provided on the quality and quantity of the feed.
- Ensure stringent hygiene and cleanliness when handling cattle or other dairy animals.
- Regular visits to the vet also reduce the chance of contracting illnesses.
- Ensure the animals are regularly vaccinated.
3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
A ‘breed’ is defined as a group of animals that have a common descent and share standard characteristic features such as size and appearance. The common objectives of animal breeding are as follows:
- To increase the yield of animals (concerning dairy, fibre, and meat)
- To increase the desirable traits and features (such as cows that are selectively bred for larger quantities of meat)
- To increase disease resistance
- To produce superior breeds
4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you, which of the methods is best? Why?
Animal breeding can be classified into two types, and they are as follows:
- Natural Methods of Breeding
- Artificial Methods of Breeding
Natural Methods of Breeding involve the following:
- Inter-specific hybridisation
Artificial Methods of Breeding involve the following:
- Artificial Insemination
- MOET (multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology)
From a commercial perspective, MOET is considered the best method of breeding as it overcomes the hurdles of natural breeding while ensuring high success rates for crossing between male and female animals. It is also more economically viable than the other mentioned techniques.
5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Apiculture or beekeeping is defined as the processes and steps necessary to ensure the upkeep and maintenance of honeybee hives for the production of honey. Honey is essential for many reasons, as detailed below:
- It is highly nutritious and is used as an ingredient in many dishes.
- It can replace sugar as a healthier alternative.
- Besides culinary applications, honey has also been used to heal wounds due to its antibacterial properties.
- It is also considered to alleviate cold and cough symptoms.
- From a commercial perspective, it is considered as an income-generating activity and is not very labour-intensive.
6. Discuss the role of fishery in the enhancement of food production.
Fisheries is defined as a coordinated effort to capture or rear fish through fishing farms and aquaculture. However, fisheries are not just limited to fish; for instance, oysters are selectively bred for pearls, shells and tissues. Fisheries play a significant role in food production, especially in India. From a dietary perspective, fish is an affordable source of animal protein. From a commercial perspective, fisheries provide employment opportunities for residents in coastal areas.
7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
Plant breeding is defined as the process of changing select traits in order to bring about desired characteristics. It is primarily used to improve the nutritional value of plants. Following are the steps observed in plant breeding:
- Accumulation of genetic variability
- Germplasm evaluation and parent selection
- Cross-hybridisation of selected parents
- Choosing superior hybrids
- Testing the viability of new cultivars
8. Explain what biofortification is?
Biofortification is a process of breeding crops to improve their nutritional value. Biofortification is different from food enrichment as the emphasis is given to plants being nutritious as they are growing rather than adding in nutrients during food processing. It is primarily aimed at reducing deficiency disorders in the general public. Examples of biofortified crops involve golden rice, a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) genetically engineered to have increased amounts of beta carotene, a precursor to Vitamin A. Micronutrient deficiency is common in developing and under-developed countries. Hence, biofortified crops are a feasible option to tackle this problem.
9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?
Virus-free plants can be made if the axillary and apical meristem are used. These regions are used as they are unaffected by the virus when compared to the rest of the plant. Scientists have used this method to develop virus-free plants of sugarcane, banana, potato etc.
10. What is the major advantage of producing plants through micropropagation?
Micropropagation is a method wherein new plants are produced in a shorter duration with the help of plant tissue culture methodologies. The major advantages are as follows:
- Micropropagation helps to propagate large amounts of plants in a relatively short amount of time.
- The resultant plants are identical to the parent plant.
- Production of disease-resistant crops.
11. Find out what the various components of the medium are used for the propagation of an explant in vitro.
The various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are sources of carbon, such as sucrose, vitamins, minerals, water, agar-agar, auxins and gibberellins, and amino acids.
12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
|Name of the Crop Plant||Hybrid Variety|
|Rice||Jaya and Ratna|
|Wheat||Sonalika & Kalian Sona|
|NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9|
|CBSE Notes for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9|
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 NCERT Solutions provides students with in-depth knowledge of animal husbandry and its various techniques. It explains the science behind various practices seen across various industries. For instance, biofortification is a process that may help reduce nutritional deficiency diseases across the world. However, it has also been associated with genetic engineering, which is frowned upon by individuals and organisations worldwide. Students can utilise the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 for any quick reference to comprehend complex topics.
Similarly, explore other intriguing scenarios in Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production in these solutions. A plethora of academic resources exist, making it difficult for students to choose the right one. However, the NCERT Solution for Class 12 Biology is the right choice for students studying for Class 12 board exams. It enables a thorough and easy understanding of concepts using easy-to-understand language.
The main concepts covered in this chapter are as follows:
- Role of Animal Husbandry in Human Welfare
- Dairy Farm Management
- Poultry Farm Management
- Plant Breeding
- Single Cell Protein (SCP)
- Tissue Culture
Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Content presented in an easy-to-comprehend language
- Jargons are explained
- Questions are answered to the point
- Detailed and easy-to-draw images
- Additional questions
- Helpful for competitive exams
- Solutions crafted by the experienced teachers
Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9
What is biofortification in Chapter 9 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology?
What are the topics covered in Chapter 9 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology?
1. Role of Animal husbandry in Human Welfare
2. Dairy Farm Management
3. Poultry Farm Management
5. Plant Breeding
6. Single Cell Protein (SCP)
7. Tissue Culture