NCERT Book Solutions Class 7 History Our Pasts – II Chapter 4
Mughals expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi starting from the latter half of the 16th century and finally, in the 17th century, they were controlling nearly the entire subcontinent. They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance, which are still practiced beyond their rule. In fact, the Mughals had left behind a political legacy, which the rulers of the subcontinent who succeeded them could not ignore. Chapter 4 of the CBSE Class 7 History deals with concepts related to the Mughal Empire. NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 4 “The Mughal Empire” explores the solutions to the exercises given in the textbook “Our Pasts-II”. These NCERT Solutions of the exercises provided at the end of the chapter will be a useful resource for school exams.
Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History PDF below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 4
The solutions for chapter 4, The Mughal Empire are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 7 for other subjects.
1. Match the following:
2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was ____________.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, ____________ and _________________.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his ____________ .
(d) Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of ____________ so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
Answer: (a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was Kabul.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his number of cavalrymen.
(d) Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of sulh-i-kul so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
3. What were the central provinces under the control of the Mughals?
Answer: The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were Delhi, Kabul, Mewar, Sindh, Marwar, Gujarat, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Chittor and Deccan.
4. What was the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?
Answer: Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs which were somewhat like iqtas. The Mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs, rather they only had the rights to the revenue of their assignments, which was collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
5. What was the role of the zamindar in Mughal administration?
Answer: ‘Zamindar’ was a term used by the Mughals to describe all intermediaries, whether the local headmen of a village or any powerful chieftain. The role of the zamindar in Mughal administration was to collect the revenues and taxes from the peasants that were a source of income for the Mughals. They acted as an intermediate between the Mughals and the peasants and in some areas the zamindars exercised a great deal of power.
6. How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
Answer: During the 1570s, Akbar had a discussion on religion with the Ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests who were Roman Catholics and Zoroastrians. These discussions took place during his stay at Fatehpur Sikri in the ibadat khana. Akbar was interested in the religion and social customs of different people and his interaction with people of different faiths made him realise that their teachings created divisions and disharmony among his subjects. Thus Akbar came to an idea known as ‘sulh-i kul’ which focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace. Abul Fazl helped Akbar in framing a vision of governance around this idea of sulh-i kul, which was also followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well.
7. Why did the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mongol descent?
Answer: From their mother’s side, the Mughals were descendants of Genghis Khan (died 1227), the Mongol ruler who ruled over parts of China and Central Asia. From their father’s side, they were the successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. However, the Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol. This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. But the Mughals were proud of their Timurid ancestry.
8. How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
Answer: The income from land revenue played an important role in establishing stability in the Mughal Empire. It strengthened the economic system of the Empire. The money collected was invested in building forts and was for the welfare of subjects. Its importance can be easily assessed from the fact that Todar Mal, Akbar ‘s revenue minister, took 10-year period to carry out the proper calculation of land revenue.
9. Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis?
Answer: It was important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis because:
a. The empire had expanded to encompass different regions and provinces, thus it was needed to provide stability to the empire.
b. The problems of common folks would be understood better by the people living with them.
c. Mughal also didn’t want people to rebel against them on the issue of privileges to Turanis and Iranis.
d. They came here to rule, so they needed to respect the diversity of the country in order to have a control over it.
The Mughal Empire Summary
The NCERT Class 7 Our Pasts-II Chapter 4 talks about the following topics:
- Who were the Mughals?
- Military Campaigns of the Mughals and the Mughal Emperors
- The relationship between the Mughals and other rulers
a. Mansabdars and Jagidars
b. Zabt and Zamindars
c. Akbar’s Policies
- The Mughal Empire in the 17th century and after
Our Pasts-II is an important book for Class 7 Social Science subject. Apart from this chapter, the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science is given in the linked article.