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Difference Between Sociology and History

Sociology and History are closely related to each other. It is said that “History without Sociology has no fruit, while Sociology without History has no root”.

Yet for all their closeness, both the branches of social science are distinct from one another.

History is the study of past events. It also includes a survey of conditions and developments in economic, religious and social affairs.

Sociology is the study of the pattern of human interaction, culture, and social relationships that surround everyday life.

*Sociology and History are Optional Subjects in the UPSC Mains Exam

Difference Between Sociology and History

This article will attempt to highlight the differences between the two within the context of the IAS Exam

The difference between Sociology and History is given in the table below:                                         

Differences between Sociology and History



Sociology can be defined as a general science of human society as it uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge History includes the academic discipline  to analyze a sequence of past events, investigate the patterns of cause and effect that are related to them
Sociology uses all types of techniques used in science such as sampling, statistics which are available during and after the study is conducted The study of history is based on a collection of facts and evidence which may have been fabricated or exaggerated. 
Sociology studies human societies of the present and hence there are fewer chances of error in the methods used to document human interactions and behaviour The problem with traditional methods of recording history is that there will always be bias. For example, historical records of the Huns, a nomadic people of the 5th century AD, are non-existent as they had no system of writing. The available records are from Roman and Goth authors, who were the two groups of people the Huns fought against. Hence, the sources themselves cannot be taken at face value because of this bias
The range of methods used in sociology has led to the development of philosophic and interpretative approaches towards the analysis of society The modern study of history is wide-ranging and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain elements of historical investigation
Herodotus (484 BC –  425 BC), a Greek historian, is often considered as the “father of history” The foundations of modern-day sociology were laid through the works of Auguste Comte ( January 19th, 1798 – September 5 1857) 

Aspirants can find study materials for UPSC History and Sociology optional subjects through the links given below:

Aspirants can find more Difference Between Articles, by visiting the linked page

Difference Between Sociology and History – Download PDF Here

Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Exams by visiting the UPSC Syllabus page. For more articles and exam-related preparation materials, refer to the links given in the table below:

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