Learning Indian history for UPSC IAS exam is a dreadful task. The history and Culture has an important role in both UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam and the Main Examination. The Indus Valley Civilization was spread from present-day North-East Afghanistan to Pakistan and North-West India. This civilization flourished in the river basins of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and the Indus. Indus valley civilization is one of the four oldest civilizations in the world. It is also known as Harappan Civilization and is well-known for its organized planning based on the grid system.
Here we are giving the important points to be remembered for UPSC IAS Prelims examination.
- John Marshall was the first researcher to use the term, ‘Indus Valley Civilization’.
- Indus Valley Civilization spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC according to radio-carbon dating.
- The most distinctive feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization.
- Moreover, sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo, and elephant were domesticated in Indus Valley Civilization.
- The capital cities are Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
- The port cities are Sutkagendor, Balakot, Lothal, Allahdino, and Kuntasi.
- The Indus valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool.
- It is located on the right bank of the Indus.
- It was on the banks of the river Ghaggar river
- It lies on the left bank of the Indus in the south of Mohenjodaro.
- It is located at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.
- It is at the head of the Rann of Kutch.
- It was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati
- It excavated is in the Kutch district
- Indus valley civilization is the first urbanization in India
- It has well-planned drainage system, grid pattern and town planning
- They have possessed equality in society
- Matridevi or Shakti is the Mother goddess
- Yoni worship and Nature worship existed.
- They worshiped trees like Peepal
- They also worshiped Fire worship called Havan Kund.
- Pashupati Mahadeva is known as the lord of Animals
- The people of Indus Valley Civilization worshiped Animal worship like Unicorn and ox.
- Indus valley civilization is based on agriculture
- Trade and commerce flourished in this period.
- A dockyard has been found at Lothal.
- There were export and import.
- Production of cotton was there
- 16 was the unit of measurement
- Weights and measures of truth existed in Harappan culture was seen at Lothal.
- The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc. and were usually cubical in shape.