Important points to remember in Indus Valley civilization for Prelims

Learning Indian history for UPSC IAS exam is a dreadful task. The history and Culture has an important role in both UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam and the Main Examination. The Indus Valley Civilization was spread from present-day North-East Afghanistan to Pakistan and North-West India. This civilization flourished in the river basins of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and the Indus. Indus valley civilization is one of the four oldest civilizations in the world. It is also known as Harappan Civilization and is well-known for its organized planning based on the grid system.

Here we are giving the important points to be remembered for UPSC IAS Prelims examination.

Important facts

  • John Marshall was the first researcher to use the term, ‘Indus Valley Civilization’.
  • Indus Valley Civilization spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC according to radio-carbon dating.
  • The most distinctive feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization.
  • Moreover, sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo, and elephant were domesticated in Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The capital cities are Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
  • The port cities are Sutkagendor, Balakot, Lothal, Allahdino, and Kuntasi.
  • The Indus valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool.

Major Cities

Mohenjodaro (Sind)

  • It is located on the right bank of the Indus.

Kalibangan (Rajasthan)

  • It was on the banks of the river Ghaggar river


  • It lies on the left bank of the Indus in the south of Mohenjodaro.


  • It is located at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.

Surkotada (Gujarat)

  • It is at the head of the Rann of Kutch.

Banawali (Haryana)

  • It was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati

Dholavira (Gujarat)

  • It excavated is in the Kutch district

Social features

  • Indus valley civilization is the first urbanization in India
  • It has well-planned drainage system, grid pattern and town planning
  • They have possessed equality in society

 Religious Facts

  • Matridevi or Shakti is the Mother goddess
  • Yoni worship and Nature worship existed.
  • They worshiped trees like Peepal
  • They also worshiped Fire worship called Havan Kund.
  • Pashupati Mahadeva is known as the lord of Animals
  • The people of Indus Valley Civilization worshiped Animal worship like Unicorn and ox.

Economic facts

  • Indus valley civilization is based on agriculture
  • Trade and commerce flourished in this period.
  • A dockyard has been found at Lothal.
  • There were export and import.
  • Production of cotton was there
  • 16 was the unit of measurement
  • Weights and measures of truth existed in Harappan culture was seen at Lothal.
  • The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc. and were usually cubical in shape.


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