02 Dec 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

02 December 2023 CNA
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A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
1. India offers to host COP-33
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
1. Loss & Damage Fund
1. Improving the capability of the Indian State
F. Prelims Facts
1. Governor cannot refer re-enacted bills to President, says SC
2. India at Interpol meet
3. UAE announces $30 billion fund to boost climate investments
4. Philippines sets up new monitoring base in South China Sea
5. Chinese projects in Vietnam & Sierra Leone
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine


1. Improving the capability of the Indian State

Syllabus: GS-2, Government policies and interventions for the development of various sectors, Issues arising out of design and implementation of government intervention

Mains: Improving the capability of the Indian State

Context:​ The Indian state grapples with a paradox—being too expansive yet relatively small in key metrics.

  • Complex regulatory frameworks hinder business and civic activities, creating uncertainties for citizens.
  • The state’s size, as indicated by civil servant per capita and public sector employment, raises concerns about adequacy in addressing societal needs.


  • Bureaucratic Red Tape:
    • Licences, permits, clearances, and permissions create a challenging bureaucratic environment for businesses and citizens.
    • The labyrinth of regulations poses obstacles to ease of doing business and adherence to the law.
  • Size Discrepancy:
    • India’s civil servants per capita is the smallest in the G-20, impacting the state’s effectiveness.
    • The public sector’s share in total employment and key service sectors is significantly lower compared to other countries.
  • Resource Scarcity:
    • India faces a scarcity of essential public goods, welfare provisions, and the justice system.
    • The state’s limited capability results in outsourcing services, impacting critical sectors like primary health.


  • Debate on State’s Role:
    • The debate on the state’s role oscillates between proponents advocating increased public spending and detractors calling for a smaller state.
    • Both perspectives miss the crucial role of incentives, institutional structures, and skill gaps in hindering effective governance.
  • Perverse Incentives and Skill Gap:
    • Perverse incentives in public institutions and a skill gap among officials erode the ability to formulate and implement sound policies.
    • Lack of technocratic skills at top levels leads to substantial outsourcing to consultancy firms, indicating a need for internal expertise.


  • Separation of Powers:
    • Experiences from countries like Australia, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom suggest separating policymaking and implementation responsibilities expedites execution and encourages innovations.
    • Implementation-related issues should be delegated to frontline personnel to enhance accountability.
  • Lateral Entry and Skill Development:
    • Institutionalized lateral entry at mid and senior levels can bridge the civil services’ size and technocratic gap.
    • Subject-specific training under Mission Karmayogi can enhance the skill set of civil servants.
  • Strengthening Oversight Agencies:
    • Increase the strength of professional staff in oversight agencies like SEBI and RBI.
    • Sensitize oversight agencies to appreciate the context of policy decisions, reducing unnecessary delays and disputes.
  • Reforming Regulatory Appointments:
    • Address issues related to the appointment of retired officers to regulatory bodies and tribunals.
    • Increase the retirement age and establish an absolute upper limit for all appointments to curb political manipulation.
  • Realigning Public Sector Pay:
    • Moderate pay raises by future Pay Commissions and a reduction in the upper age limit can address corruption in appointments.
    • Align public sector salaries with risk-adjusted pay in the private sector to attract intrinsically motivated individuals.

Nut Graf: Improving the capability of the Indian state requires a comprehensive approach addressing bureaucratic complexities, size discrepancies, and resource scarcities.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Governor cannot refer re-enacted bills to President, says SC

Context: The Tamil Nadu government criticizes Governor R.N. Ravi for referring 10 re-enacted Bills to the President after withholding assent on November 13.

  • Chief Justice D.Y. Chandrachud asserts the Governor’s constitutional obligation to send re-passed Bills back to the Assembly.


  • Constitutional Obstinacy by Governor:
    • TN government accuses Governor Ravi of “constitutional obstinacy” for referring Bills to the President post withholding assent.
    • The Governor’s action was questioned in light of established legal principles.
  • Governor’s Authority and Withheld Assent:
    • CJI Chandrachud highlights that once the Governor withholds assent, the Bills must be sent back to the Assembly under Article 200’s first provision.
    • The Governor’s attempt to refer Bills to the President was criticized as conflicting with established legal precedents.
  • Interpretation of Article 200:
    • The Attorney-General argues that the Governor merely withheld assent and did not send the Bills back for reconsideration.
    • Dispute arises over the interpretation of Article 200 and the Governor’s authority in the given circumstances.


  • Legal Precedents and November 10 Judgment:
    • CJI emphasizes the Supreme Court’s November 10 judgment, settling the law that re-passed Bills must receive the Governor’s assent.
    • The significance of adherence to established legal principles for the smooth functioning of constitutional processes.
  • Assembly’s Repassage and Governor’s Authority:
    • Dispute arises regarding whether the Assembly’s re-passage of Bills on November 18 was valid or futile.
    • Questions raised about the Governor’s authority to withhold consent and the Assembly’s response.


  • Resolution through Dialogue:
    • Chief Justice suggests resolving the impasse between the Chief Minister and the Governor through dialogue.
    • Urges the Governor to engage with the Chief Minister for an amicable resolution.
  • Legal Clarity on Governor’s Role:
    • Need for a clearer understanding of the Governor’s role in cases of withheld assent and re-enacted Bills.
    • Emphasis on aligning actions with constitutional provisions to avoid conflicts.

2. India at Interpol meet

Context: A high-ranking Indian delegation, led by CBI Director Praveen Sood and NIA Director-General Dinkar Gupta, addressed the 91st Interpol General Assembly.

  • Urges member countries to deny safe haven to criminals, crime, and the proceeds of crime.
  • Contextualized within India’s ongoing efforts to extradite or deport alleged terrorists and wanted persons from countries like Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.


  • Global Extradition Challenges:
    • India faces challenges in extraditing alleged terrorists and criminals from various countries.
    • Specific reference to pro-Khalistan elements and other wanted persons.
  • Safe Haven for Criminals:
    • Concerns about some nations providing safe havens for criminals and the proceeds of crime.
    • Emphasis on the need for international cooperation to prevent such safe havens.


  • Increased Cooperation and Extradition Success:
    • The year has witnessed the return of 24 criminals and fugitives wanted by Indian agencies from abroad.
    • Geo-location of 184 criminals in different countries demonstrates enhanced leveraging of Interpol channels and global collaboration.
  • Interpol’s Centenary and Vision 2030:
    • The 100th anniversary of Interpol is marked by the General Assembly in Vienna.
    • India’s support for Interpol’s Vision 2030 indicates a commitment to coordinated strategies in combating transnational crime.


  • Coordinated Strategies:
    • The delegation advocates for coordinated strategies to crack down on criminal organizations operating across international borders.
    • Urges member countries to work together to prevent the misuse of their territories for criminal activities.
  • Global Adoption of Interpol’s Vision 2030:
    • India’s support for Vision 2030 indicates a collective commitment to align law enforcement efforts with evolving challenges.
    • Vision 2030 likely emphasizes technological advancements and collaboration to enhance global security.

3. UAE announces $30 billion fund to boost climate investments

Context: The UAE, host of COP-28, unveiled a significant commitment of $30 billion to the ALTÉRRA investment fund.

  • ALTÉRRA, a privately managed fund chaired by COP-28 President Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, aims to mobilize $250 billion globally by 2030.
  • The fund focuses on climate investments and aims to transform emerging markets and developing economies.


  • Climate Investment Challenges:
    • Global efforts to combat climate change face financial challenges, with a significant annual requirement for emerging markets and developing economies.
    • The need for substantial investments to address climate change and meet the targets set in international agreements.
  • Dual Role Criticism:
    • Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber faces criticism for holding dual roles as COP-28 President and CEO of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company.
    • Concerns raised about potential conflicts of interest and the ability to deliver successful outcomes at COP.


  • Financial Commitment and Global Mobilization:
    • The $30-billion commitment to ALTÉRRA signifies the UAE’s commitment to climate action and global collaboration.
    • Aims to mobilize $250 billion globally by 2030, making it the largest fund of its kind focused on climate investments.
  • India’s Clean Energy Development:
    • India stands to benefit from the initial tranche, with an unspecified amount allocated for developing over 6 GW of new clean energy capacity.
    • Specific focus on establishing 1,200 MW of wind and solar projects in India, contributing to the country’s renewable energy goals.


  • Private Capital Attraction:
    • ALTÉRRA seeks to attract private capital on a significant scale, creating a multiplier effect in climate-focused investments.
    • Aims to be a transformative solution, reflecting the COP Presidency’s Action Agenda and the UAE’s commitment to making climate finance accessible.
  • Inclusive Collaboration:
    • Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber emphasizes involving a wide range of entities, including governments, the private sector, renewable energy companies, and oil and gas firms.
    • Calls for inclusive collaboration to deliver successful outcomes at COP and advance efforts to limit temperature rise.

4. Philippines sets up new monitoring base in South China Sea

Context: The Philippines inaugurates a new coast guard monitoring base on Thitu Island in the disputed South China Sea.

  • Plans to enhance joint patrols with the U.S. and Australia to counteract China’s actions in the strategic waterway.
  • Escalation of high-seas face-offs raises concerns about a potential larger conflict involving the U.S.

Establishment of Monitoring Base:

  • Location and Purpose:
    • The new monitoring base is situated on Thitu Island, occupied by Filipino forces.
    • It aims to enhance maritime surveillance and monitoring capabilities in response to increasing tensions in the South China Sea.
  • Key Features:
    • The two-story centre is equipped with radar, ship-tracking systems, and other monitoring equipment.
    • Focus on monitoring China’s activities in the disputed waters and addressing maritime challenges, including sea accidents.

Expansion of Joint Patrols:

  • Collaboration with the U.S. and Australia:
    • The Philippines plans to expand joint patrols with the U.S. and Australia.
    • Joint efforts intended to counter China’s perceived aggression and prevent further escalation of tensions.
  • Response to China’s Actions:
    • Described as a response to China’s “pure bullying” in the South China Sea.
    • Joint patrols seen as a strategic move to assert regional security and protect Philippine interests.


  • Regional Security Strengthening:
    • The establishment of the monitoring base reflects the Philippines’ commitment to strengthening regional security in the face of escalating tensions.
    • Enhanced surveillance capabilities contribute to the proactive monitoring of maritime activities.
  • Strategic Alliances:
    • Collaboration with the U.S. and Australia underscores the importance of strategic alliances in addressing geopolitical challenges.
    • Joint patrols signify a collective effort to counterbalance China’s influence in the region.

5. Chinese projects in Vietnam & Sierra Leone


  • China, Vietnam weigh rail link through rare earths heartland
    • China and Vietnam are working on a possible significant upgrade of their underdeveloped rail links to boost a line that crosses Vietnam’s rare earths heartland and reaches the country’s top port in the north. The talks are part of preparations for a possible visit to Hanoi in the coming weeks by Chinese President Xi Jinping.
  • Sierra Leone signs MOU with China firm for Freetown bridge
    • Sierra Leone has signed a memorandum of understanding with China Road and Bridge Corporation and Atepa Group’s architectural firm to build an 8-km bridge with an estimated cost of about $1.5 billion.
    • The bridge will link the capital Freetown to the town of Lungi, which is an airport hub.

G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements, with reference to Interpol:
  1. It was established in 1923 as a secure information-sharing platform for global criminal investigation.
  2. It aims to promote mutual assistance between criminal police forces, with specialized directorates for various crimes.
  3. In India, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) serves as the highest investigating body, overseeing the collation of information and liaison with Interpol.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Answer: c

Explanation: All three statements are correct. Interpol facilitates global cooperation among law enforcement agencies.

Q2. Consider the following passage:

“It is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. The country’s capital, Freetown, was founded as a settlement for freed slaves in the late 18th century. In the country, Temne and Mende are the largest ethnic groups. It is rich in natural resources, especially diamond, gold, bauxite, and aluminium. It has one of the world’s largest deposits of rutile, a titanium ore used as paint pigment and welding rod coatings.”

Which one of the following describes the country, recently in the news?

  1. Ghana
  2. Liberia
  3. Nigeria
  4. Sierra Leone

Answer: d

Explanation: The correct answer is Sierra Leone.

Q3. With reference to the Governor, which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. The Governor can refer re-passed Bills to the President.
  2. No procedure has been laid down in the Indian Constitution for the removal of a Governor from his/her post.

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b

Explanation: The first proviso of Article 200 mandates the Governor not to withhold assent to re-enacted Bills sent back to him for consent.

Q4. Recently in the news, where is Thitu Island located?
  1. East China Sea
  2. Arabian Sea
  3. South China Sea
  4. Bay of Bengal

Answer: c

Explanation: Thitu Island is the second largest naturally occurring island among the Spratly Islands located in the South China Sea. 

Q5. With reference to the ALTÉRRA, consider the following statements:
  1. ALTÉRRA aims to mobilize $250 billion globally by 2030.
  2. It has been established by the UAE Government and is domiciled in the Abu Dhabi Global Market.
  3. It focuses on two key verticals only: Energy Transition and Climate Technologies.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Answer: a

Explanation: It is a fund by Lunate (an independent global investment manager). It focuses on Energy Transition, Industrial Decarbonisation, Sustainable Living, and Climate Technologies.

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