UNFCC COP 28 Climate Change Conference [UPSC Notes]

The new president of COP28, Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, addressed key points on climate change and energy transition.This topic is important for the UPSC exam from the environment and ecology perspective. In this article, you will find all the details of the UNFCC COP28 for the IAS exam.


COP28 refers to the 28th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. It is scheduled to be held in Nov – Dec 2023.

  • It is an international gathering where representatives from nearly 200 countries come together to discuss and negotiate global climate policies and actions. 
  • Importance:
    • COP28 aims to address the urgent challenges of climate change, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and mobilizing financial resources for climate action. 
    • The conference provides a platform for countries to set targets, share best practices, and make commitments to combat climate change. 
    • COP28 plays a crucial role in advancing international cooperation and coordination to tackle the climate crisis and achieve the goals outlined in the Paris Agreement.
  • Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber has been recently chosen as the new President of COP 28.

The Bonn Climate Conference is held in June 2023, where the groundwork will be laid for the discussions that will happen in COP28.

Key Points emphasized by the COP28 president-designate Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber:

  • Methane Emissions and Net-Zero Plans:
    • Urged the oil and gas industry to completely eliminate methane emissions by 2030 and align their practices with net-zero emission plans by 2050.
    • Emphasized the imperative of reducing and ultimately eradicating the carbon intensity of hydrocarbon usage, even in the context of their ongoing worldwide utilization.
      • Methane emissions rank among the leading contributors to global warming, with fossil fuel operations accounting for more than one-third of all human-generated methane emissions, as reported by the International Energy Agency (IEA).
      • Consequently, addressing methane is widely recognized as one of the most impactful actions the energy sector can pursue to combat climate change.
  • Inclusive Energy Transition and Climate Justice:
    • Emphasizes the critical role of the developing world in the fight against climate change.
      • He advocates for an inclusive energy transition and climate justice, ensuring that developing nations are not left behind.
    • Efforts are needed to develop and deploy new technologies for effective climate action and energy transition globally.
  • Maximizing Technology Adoption and Climate Finance:
    • Developing countries should not be left behind in technology adoption, as they represent a significant portion of the world’s population.
    • Public, multilateral, and private sectors need to enhance climate finance to make it more available, accessible, and affordable.
    • Technology is essential in helping vulnerable communities build capacities and transition to a low-carbon economic development model.
  • Renewable Energy Capacity and Hydrocarbons:
    • Advocates for a rapid increase in global renewable energy capacity, aiming to triple it to 11,000 GW by 2030 and double it again by 2040.
    • Acknowledges that hydrocarbons are still necessary as a bridge to a new energy system.
    • Carbon footprint reduction, investment in low-carbon intensive barrels of oil, and intensity reduction are crucial for hydrocarbon usage.
  • Carbon Capture Technologies and Industrial Emissions:
    • Emphasizes the need to “get serious” about carbon capture technologies to achieve realistic net-zero emissions scenarios.
    • Policy incentives should encourage technology companies to commercialize various carbon capture methods.
    • Expanding carbon capture technologies and turning captured carbon into practical products can contribute to emission reduction.
  • Breakthroughs in Battery Storage, Nuclear Energy, and Fusion:
    • Continued advancements in battery storage technology are crucial for integrating renewable energy sources.
    • Supports the expansion of nuclear energy and investment in new energy pathways like fusion.
    • Focus on agricultural technology is necessary as food systems and agriculture contribute significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions.

UNFCC COP 28 Climate Change Conference [UPSC Notes]:- Download PDF Here

Related Links
Kyoto Protocol Global Methane Assessment Report
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) IPCC Report – A Complete Overview on Climate Change
Global Environment Outlook List of Environment Conventions & Protocols


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