12 Jan 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 12 Jan 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. HC orders notice to Center on Dam Safety Act
2. Safeguard transgender prisoners: Centre
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
ECONOMY
1. Extending GST compensation as a reform catalyst
ENVIRONMENT
1. Treating the planet well can aid progress
F. Prelims Facts
1. Petta Thullal held at Erumely
2. BrahMos advanced variant test fired
3. Rain delays Central Vista project, again
4. More curbs for Ganga Sagar mela
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Nut Graf
The pith and substance of the new Dam Safety Act is to regulate the entire functioning of dams including their safety. The petition is significant as the States are already grappling with legal fights over sharing of water and the safety of the dams should not become a constraint to cooperative federalism.

2. Safeguard transgender prisoners: Centre

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
GS I Social Justice: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. 

Mains: Issues faced by the Transgenders in Indian Prisons

Context: 

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has given directions to all states with respect to the issues of transgender persons in prisons.

What are the directions given by MHA?

  1. To ensure separate accommodation for transgender persons in prisons.
  2. To revise the prison admission register to include “transgender” as a category other than male and female gender.
  3. To make similar provisions in the Prison Management System in maintaining electronic records.

What are the issues faced by Transgenders in prisons?

  • The report, ‘Lost Identity: Transgender Persons in Indian Prisons’, by the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) found that prisons across the country lacked policies and awareness about the needs of transgender inmates, leading to a denial of their rights. 
  • Following are the significant issues faced by transgenders in prisons:
    • No proper mechanism or uniformity in the maintenance of data regarding transgender persons.
    • Government’s failure to comply with the standards for ascertaining the needs of trans prisoners.
    • Courts too fail to recognise a ‘third gender’ in various cases and the gender of transgender persons continues to be documented in the male/female binary categorisation. 
    • Lack of recognition seeps into prison processes including search procedures and placements within prisons. 
    • Prisons continue to cater to primarily male populations and fail to acknowledge the vulnerabilities of transgender prisoners.
    • Lack of infrastructure and gap in policies ultimately resulting in a gross violation of human rights.
    • No substantive training/awareness programmes on the rights of transgender persons in prisons.

Recommendations

  • The centre should formulate a model policy on ascertaining the special needs of transgender persons in prisons.
  • Outline guidance on documentation, search procedures, placement, medical facilities and recreational/welfare/educational activities within prisons.
  • Form segregation in prisons by ensuring separate wards for trans persons in prisons.
  • Appropriate arrangements for providing suitable accommodation and facilities in accordance with their gender identity may be made in the prisons.
  • There should be a separate enclosure or ward for transgender convicts for transmen and transwomen, as well as wards or enclosures for male and female inmates.
  • Separate bathrooms for transmen and transwomen, as well as shower facilities, should be provided to protect the right to privacy and dignity in prisons.

Government Measures: 

The government enacted the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act in 2019 to ensure their safety and to protect them against any form of exploitation in the context of prisons and correctional facilities.

Conclusion: 

A welfare state cannot argue that certain people are not entitled to particular services. Only sufficient training, knowledge, and recruitment can provide answers to concerns about the issues that transgender people experience in Indian prisons.

Nut Graf
The MHA directive to States to recognise transgender persons as transgenders rather than either male or female is a step in the right direction. However, it must be ensured that the directive is implemented in both letter and spirit in prisons all across the country if the marginalised sexual minority group is to receive some solace for the decades of non-recognition and discrimination it faced and is still facing in various fields. 

2. BrahMos advanced variant test fired

Context:

The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile was test-fired from the recently commissioned stealth guided missile destroyer INS Visakhapatnam.

About BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile:

  • BrahMos is a short-range, supersonic anti-ship/land-attack cruise missile.
  • Name: The name ‘BrahMos’ is derived from India’s Brahmaputra and the Moskva River in Russia.
  • Collaboration: BrahMos is a joint collaboration between India and Russia.
  • Capability: It is capable of being launched from land, sea, sub-sea and air against surface and sea-based targets.
  • Range: The range of the missile was originally capped at 290 km as per obligations of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Following India’s entry into the club in June 2016, the range would be extended to 450 km and to 600 km at a later stage.

About INS Visakhapatnam: INS Visakhapatnam is the first of four ingeniously designed and built Project-15B class stealth guided-missile destroyers.

Know more about INS Visakhapatnam.

What is the Significance of Advance Variant testing?

  • The successful test-firing certifies the accuracy of the ship’s combat system and armament complex.
  • It also validates a new capability the missile provides the Navy and the nation.
  • The robustness of Indian Navy mission readiness is reconfirmed after the successful launch of the advanced version of the BrahMos Missile.

3. Rain delays Central Vista project, again

Context:

The redevelopment work of the Central Vista project has been delayed due to rainfall.

Central Vista Redevelopment Project: 

  • Central Vista is an ambitious project which aims to redevelop a 3.2-km stretch that lies at the heart of Lutyens Delhi built by the British in the 1930s. 
  • The project involves demolishing and rebuilding several government buildings, including iconic landmarks, and constructing a new Parliament.

Know more about Central Vista Redevelopment Project.

4. More curbs for Ganga Sagar mela

Context: 

The Calcutta High Court modified its order regarding the Ganga Sagar Mela.

Gangasagar Mela: 

  • The Gangasagar festival is celebrated at the Sagar Island held on Makar Sankranti. 
  • The Gangasagar Mela is well-known around the world, and it is held in West Bengal with great grandeur.

Know more about Gangasagar Mela in Jan 11, 2021.

G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements with regards to the PM Kusum scheme:
  1. The scheme was launched by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
  2. Small solar power plants of capacity up to 2 MW can be set up by individual farmers/cooperatives/panchayats/Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO) on barren/fallow/marshy/pasture or cultivable lands.
  3. If cultivated fields are chosen for setting up solar power plants, the solar panels are set up above a minimum height so that the farmer can continue to grow crops below solar panels.

Choose the correct code:

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The PM KUSUM Scheme has been announced by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). Hence Statement 1 is correct.
  • It aims to establish solar pumps and grid-connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.
  • Renewable energy-based power plants (REPP) of capacity 500 kW to 2 MW will be set up by individual farmers/groups of farmers/cooperatives/panchayats/Farmer Producer Organisations (FPO). Hence Statement 2 is correct.
  •  These power plants can also be installed on cultivable land on stilts where crops can also be grown below the solar panels. Hence Statement 3 is correct.
Q2. Which of the following statements is not true about the World Trade Organization?
  1. Although the WTO is not a UN specialized agency, it has maintained strong relations with the UN and its agencies since its establishment.
  2. The topmost decision-making body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which usually meets annually.
  3. WTO replaced the GATT since the latter was only a set of rules and multilateral agreements and lacked institutional structure.
  4. The General Council, having representatives from all member governments, convenes as the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) to deal with disputes between WTO members.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

WTO Ministerial Conferences

  • The topmost decision-making body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which usually meets every two years. 
  • It brings together all members of the WTO, all of which are countries or customs unions. 
  • The Ministerial Conference can take decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade agreements.

Hence Option B is the correct answer since it’s the wrong statement.

Q3. Post joining which of the following groups was India able to extend the range of 
Brahmos missile beyond 290 km?
  1. Wassenaar Arrangement
  2. Australia Group
  3. Missile Technology Control Regime
  4. Nuclear Suppliers Group
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is a multilateral export control regime that prevents ballistic missiles and other unmanned delivery systems from being utilised in chemical, biological, or nuclear strikes.
  • India had officially joined the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) as a full member.
  • The extended-range version of BrahMos was developed after India’s full membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), which removed caps on the range of the cruise missile.

Hence Option C is correct.

Q4. Consider the following statements with regards to Mamallapuram:
  1. Mamallapuram, also called Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas, is a town that lies along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal.
  2. The town’s religious centre was founded by a 7th-century Hindu Pallava King Narasimhavarman, also known as Mamalla—for whom the town was named.
  3. It contains many surviving 7th- and 8th-century Pallava temples and monuments, chief of which are the sculptured rock relief popularly known as “Arjuna’s Penance,” or “Descent of the Ganges,” a series of sculptured cave temples, and a Shiva temple on the seashore.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 & 2 only
  2. 2 & 3 only
  3. 1 & 3 only
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Mamallapuram is also called Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas and it is situated in Tamil Nadu along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Hence Statement 1 is correct.
  • The town’s religious centre was constructed by a Hindu Pallava ruler named Narasimhavarman, also known as Mamalla, in the 7th century CE. Hence Statement 2 is correct.
  • The sculptured rock relief, known as “Arjuna’s Penance,” or “Descent of the Ganges,” a series of sculptured cave temples, and a Shiva temple on the coast are among the many surviving 7th and 8th-century Pallava temples and monuments. Hence Statement 3 is correct.
Q5. The Global Competitiveness Report is published by the [UPSC 2019]
  1. International Monetary Fund
  2. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  3. World Economic Forum
  4. World Bank
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

The Global Competitiveness Report is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum. It ranks countries based on the Global Competitiveness Index. It measures the prosperity and competitiveness of countries by examining four factors: Economic performance, Government efficiency, Business efficiency and Infrastructure.

Hence Option C is correct.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Discuss the merit and demerits of the idea of State funding of elections in India. (250 words; 15 marks) GS II (Polity)
  2. Extending GST compensation to the states would go a long way in bridging the lack of trust between the Union and the State governments. Comment. (250 words; 15 marks) GS III (Economic Development)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 12 Jan 2022:- Download PDF Here

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*