Human Development Index

Human Development Index Definition

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a single index measure that aims to record the three key dimensions of human development: access to knowledge, a decent standard of living, and long and healthy life. In other words, the Human Development Index is practiced to measure how development has improved human life.

Also Check: What is Human Capital?

 Indicators of Human Development

Human development index rank

  • India has been on 130th rank in Human Development Index.

Life expectancy

  • It is the age by which a particular person belonging to a particular age is expected to live.
  • Life expectancy at birth in India: Males: 67.34 years , Females: 69.64 years

Infant mortality rate

  • It is the total number of infants dying below the age of 1 year out of 1000 babies.
  • Infant mortality rate in India is 40.5 infants.

Maternal mortality rate

  • It is the total number of dying mothers out of 1000 mothers while giving birth to babies.
  • According to the 2011–13 census, maternal mortality rate in India is 167 deaths.

Adult literacy ratio

  • It refers to the number of people of both the sexes, i.e., male and female aging more than 15 years having the ability to read and write.

Percentage of the population below poverty line

  • People below the poverty line are categorised according to calories consumed by each person per day, which is 2400 in rural areas and 2100 in urban areas.
  • Any person consuming calories less than the minimum limit mentioned above is said to be below the poverty line.

human development index

liberty indicator

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Solved Questions

Q.1 What is meant by adult literacy rate?


It refers to the ratio of literate adult population to the total adult population in a country.

Q.2 What is a liberty indicator?


It may be defined as the measure of the extent of demographic participation in social and political decision making.

Examples of liberty indicators are:

  1. Measure of the extent of the constitutional protection rights given to the citizen
  2. The extent of the constitutional protection of independence of the judiciary and rule of law

Q.3 What is meant by infant mortality rate.


 It refers to the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age per 1000 births in a year.

Q.4 Define life expectancy at birth.


 It refers to the average number of years for which people are expected to live.

Multiple Choice Question

Q.1 Which of the following is not an indicator of human development?

a. Life expectancy

b. Infant mortality rate

c. Adult literacy rate

d. Sex ratio

Answer Key

1 – d.

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