CNA 29 May 2023:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related C. GS 3 Related ENVIRONMENT 1. Why is the 1.5 degree Celsius target critical? D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. Unsettling hostility towards China 2. Hiroshima Summit F. Prelims Facts 1. Foucault pendulum swing 2. Kheer Bhawani mela 3. Palme d’Or and Cannes Film Festival G. Tidbits 1. India sees reduction in stunting; but wasting, obesity are concerns: report 2. From prevalence in eight States in 2001, dengue now a nationwide infection H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
C. GS 3 Related
Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation
Prelims: About World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Paris Agreement and IPCC
Mains: Details about the 1.5°C target – its significance, possible implications of breaching the target and impact on India.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in its two recent reports titled “Global Annual to Decadal Climate Update 2023-2027” and “State of Global Climate 2022” has predicted that the annual mean global surface temperature will breach the 1.5°C mark by 2027.
What is the 1.5°C target?
- The 1.5 °C target was established as a part of the Paris Agreement, which calls for countries to undertake collaborative climate actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to limit global warming.
- One of the main goals of the Paris Agreement was to limit global warming to well below 2° C and preferably limit it to 1.5° C, compared to pre-industrial levels.
- The 1.5 °C target mainly aims to limit global warming to said level by 2100, to prevent the planet from slipping into further climate crises.
- The 1.5 °C target was also endorsed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as a global target in 2018 and has been pursued in most of the climate dialogues.
Significance of the 1.5°C target
- The IPCC had come up with a special report on the impact of global warming if the global temperature breaches the 1.5°C baseline in 2018.
- The report predicted that anthropogenic activities would result in warming reaching 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052.
- Various reports suggest that the rise in the temperature over the 2°C level would result in irreversible changes in the environment coupled with more frequent and intense heat waves, droughts, heavy precipitation, increase in the mean sea level which ultimately lead to the destruction of ecosystems.
- According to the IPCC, climate-related risks are higher for global warming at 1.5°C than at present, but lower than at 2°C.
- Furthermore, the rise in the average temperature does not imply that the rate of warming is uniform across the globe. For example, warming is taking place at a greater rate than the global average in the Arctic region.
- The existing regional discrepancies and various vulnerability factors of the regions make it crucial to undertake immediate climate actions in order to limit the average warming to under the 1.5°C target.
Global Warming Likely to Breach 1.5°C
- According to the WMO, there is a more than 50% chance that global temperatures would surpass the 1.5°C mark within the next five years.
- WMO has also highlighted that insufficient progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the influence of El Niño are the key reasons for the increase in global temperatures.
- Traditionally, developed countries have been mainly responsible for a large chunk of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus are accorded additional responsibilities to implement climate actions.
- However, countries like the U.S., Australia, Russia, Japan and Canada have made little progress in meeting their pledges.
- The recent Climate Performance Indices have also pointed out that even countries such as China, Iran and Saudi Arabia have fared poorly in terms of climate performance.
- Further, the COVID pandemic and the Ukraine conflict have also played their role in aggravating the socio-economic crisis which has forced countries across to undertake efforts to build-back their economies without due focus on sustainability.
Possible impacts of current rate of global warming
- The cryosphere is shrinking at a rapid rate as the ice caps, glaciers and permafrost are melting at an alarming rate. This also results in an increase in the global mean sea level.
- Climate change has induced crop failure and also increased the risks of agricultural pest attacks and diseases.
- The rapid rate of warming has also exacerbated food insecurity causing deaths and displacements.
- Countries such as Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Sudan, Yemen and Somalia are witnessing acute food shortages.
- Additionally, rising temperatures have led to an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, cyclones, etc.
- As per the data available with the WMO, extreme weather events have resulted in the deaths of over two million people and incurred $4.3 trillion in economic damages in the last 50 years. In 2020-2021, close to about 22,608 disaster deaths were recorded worldwide.
- Recent floods in Pakistan impacted major croplands and displaced over 80 lakh people within the country.
- Countries in the Horn of Africa have been experiencing extreme drought conditions since 2020.
- Countries in the western parts are witnessing severe floods and heavy rainfall.
- People in Syria and Yemen have also been displaced on account of severe floods, storms, and heavy snowfall.
- Both aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems have been significantly impacted due to the changes in climate patterns.
- The increase in temperature above 1.5°C poses a lethal threat to the coral reefs.
- The population of migratory species has also declined significantly in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Impact of global warming on India
- India has been increasingly facing the brunt of climate change.
- Various instances of heatwaves in India in 2022 led to a decline in crop yield.
- Further, in 2022, India experienced extreme weather events for 80% of the days.
- February 2023 was seen to be the hottest month since 1901.
- There have been significant changes in the rainfall patterns and Indian monsoons which has caused wildfires and acute food shortages.
Various efforts undertaken by India to mitigate climate change
- India was ranked eighth and referred to as a “high-performer” in the recent Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2023.
- India has played an active role in attempting to balance both the development needs along with ongoing climate actions.
- Policymakers have come up with initiatives such as the Green Hydrogen Mission and the introduction of green bonds.
- Even in the international arena, India has been playing an active role by introducing programmes such as International Solar Alliance (ISA) and Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
Nut graf: The WMO, through its recent report, has cautioned that the annual global surface temperatures will exceed 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels for at least one of the years between 2023 to 2027. This has highlighted the need for bringing about a balance in the development needs with ongoing climate action both at the domestic as well as international levels.
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Syllabus: Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed & Developing Countries on India’s Interests
Mains: Impact of US policy towards China
Context: This article discusses the US policy towards China and its impact.
- In recent years, the United States’ policy towards China has undergone a significant shift, marked by an increasing level of hostility.
- Starting with a trade war in 2018, the US approach towards China has transformed into a stringent regime of technology denial, with the intention of impeding China’s growth and development.
- The evolving dynamics between these two global powers have raised concerns about the potential consequences for bilateral relations, regional stability, and global cooperation.
- For several years, its own allies such as Japan and the European Union (EU) resisted U.S. pressure to follow its new course, but the Chinese support to Russia in the Ukraine war has made it easier for the US to convince them.
- The US President Joe Biden is outlining a new framework known as the “new Washington Consensus,” aimed at reaffirming U.S. hegemony.
- The previous consensus, which was founded on principles of free markets, welcomed China with the expectation of incorporating it into the liberal international order led by the United States. However, China, to a certain degree, veered away from this trajectory.
- The strategy involves technology denial to China as one component, while another is a shift towards protectionism and a new industrial policy supported by state subsidies, contradicting the principles of the old consensus.
- Additionally, efforts are being made to engage with China and emphasise that the United States aims to “de-risk and diversify” its economy while safeguarding key technologies within a controlled environment.
- The recent G-7 summit presented a unified stance by the West and Japan regarding China, denouncing its “economic coercion” and “militarization activities.”
- It also established a new group to address hostile economic actions, primarily by China, aimed at pressuring other nations.
- One of the proposals discussed during the summit was a more stringent measure to scrutinize all outbound investments to China concerning security concerns.
Response to US Policy:
- Given the U.S. imposition of export restrictions on over 600 Chinese entities in recent years, Beijing perceives little distinction between “de-risking” and “containment.”
- China’s immediate response to the G-7 summit was to instruct its infrastructure companies to halt purchases from Micron, and it also expressed dissatisfaction with the Japanese Ambassador in Beijing over the G-7 communiqué.
- French President Emmanuel Macron’s remark about not wanting to be a subservient state to the U.S. reflects the concerns shared by Europe and allies such as South Korea.
- The CEO of Nvidia, a leading AI computing company, cautioned chip conflict could cause “huge harm” to the US tech industry. China, which makes up about a third of the industry’s market, is crucial as both a supplier of components and a customer for products.
- Many companies, including Micron, generate a significant portion of their revenue from China, and most prominent U.S. companies have substantial presence in the country.
- China has made significant progress in technology and education, although concerns remain about its alleged IP theft.
- China’s assertive behaviour in territorial disputes has led to the creation of significant adversaries, damaging its diplomatic standing.
- Both countries are engaged in a power struggle for global influence, with their competition extending beyond technology to include military and nuclear capabilities due to mounting insecurities.
- The US, EU, UK, Japan, and Australia are predicted to remain dominant over China, solidifying their global leadership.
- Both the US and China prioritise security, posing a global risk.
- The US, being more powerful, shoulders a greater responsibility, and there are concerns about its history of impulsive military actions resurfacing in its dealings with China, with potentially disastrous outcomes.
Nut Graf: In recent years, the United States’ policy towards China has shifted towards hostility, marked by a trade war and technology denial. The evolving dynamics raise concerns about bilateral relations, regional stability, and global cooperation.
Syllabus: Bilateral, Regional & Global Groupings & Agreements Involving India and/or Affecting India’s Interests
Mains: Significance of G07 in addressing global challenges
Context: 47th G07 Summit hosted by Japan.
- The 49th annual G7 Summit took place in Hiroshima, hosted by Japan as the current President of the group.
- The selection of Hiroshima as the host city highlights Prime Minister Kishida’s dedication to prioritise nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation during the meeting.
- Prime Minister Modi was invited by his Japanese counterpart and attended the G7 Summit, contributing to the discussions and deliberations alongside other world leaders.
- During the second day of the summit, the participating leaders issued a leaders’ communiqué, which was formally adopted on the 21st as the summit concluded. This communiqué serves as a collective statement outlining the shared agreements and commitments reached during the meeting.
- The G7 Summit in Hiroshima provided a crucial platform for leaders to address pressing global issues, ranging from nuclear disarmament to economic cooperation and climate action.
- The presence of world leaders, including Prime Minister Modi, reflects the significance of international cooperation in finding solutions to complex challenges.
Significance of this summit for Japan:
- The agenda of the Hiroshima Summit held great importance for Japan due to the pressing issues it addressed.
- These included Russia’s ongoing aggression in Ukraine, China’s assertive military and nuclear modernization plans, China’s increasing pressures on Taiwan, and North Korea’s volatile nuclear posturing and weapons program.
- Under the leadership of Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, Japan is actively continuing the legacy of his predecessor, Shinzo Abe, in advocating for Japan’s active role in global affairs and strengthening alliances with its partners.
- Kishida’s efforts have been focused on building a strong network of relationships and transforming them into meaningful partnerships, as demonstrated by the participation of countries like India, South Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, Australia, and Brazil in the Hiroshima Summit.
- Japan saw the Summit as an opportunity to navigate the intricate geopolitical dynamics of the Indo-Pacific region, seeking functional collaborations and establishing strong partnerships to address security risks and great power competition.
- The Summit served as a crucial moment to reinforce partnerships in a region that carries significant security risks and plays a pivotal role in shaping the global trajectory.
- Collaboration in science and technology was also a key focus for Japan during the summit. Tokyo aimed to strengthen partnerships and revitalise its chip industry, recognizing the importance of technological advancements in addressing various challenges.
Read more on outcomes of G07 Summit
New Delhi-Tokyo partnership:
- In recent years, India and Japan have established a strong collaboration, engaging in joint military exercises and progressing agreements on economic cooperation.
- Japan’s involvement in South Asia has been complemented by India’s partnership, focusing on joint infrastructure projects in the Indo-Pacific region.
- Ongoing cooperation between India and Japan serves as a crucial example of the potential that sustained partnerships hold in addressing the challenges of the 21st century.
- The G7 2023 Summit provided an opportunity for Japan and India to further strengthen their partnership and broaden the scope of their shared interests.
- The Indo-Pacific strategies of both Japan and India are grounded in two key principles: upholding a rules-based order and opposing any unilateral attempts to alter the regional balance.
- These principles were reiterated by both countries at the Hiroshima Summit, particularly in reference to Russia and China.
- The deepening ties between India and Japan carry significant implications for enhancing middle-power diplomacy in the Indo-Pacific region. The closer and stronger partnership between the two countries strengthens their collective influence and ability to shape regional dynamics.
Read more on India-Japan Relations
Nut Graf: Recent G7 Summit in Hiroshima underscored Prime Minister Kishida’s commitment to nuclear disarmament. The summit also provided an opportunity for Japan and India to strengthen their partnership, reinforcing the significance of sustained collaborations in addressing 21st-century challenges and enhancing middle-power diplomacy in the Indo-Pacific region.
F. Prelims Facts
Syllabus: GS-3; Science and Technology; Applications and effects of Science and Technology developments
Prelims: About Foucault pendulum swings
A Foucault pendulum suspended from its “Constitutional Gallery” area is one of the main features of the new Parliament building inaugurated recently.
Foucault pendulum swing
- The Foucault pendulum swing placed in the new Parliament building has been designed and installed by the National Council of Science Museums (NCSM) of Kolkata.
- The Foucault pendulum is named after a French physicist named Léon Foucault who is known to have devised the apparatus in the 19th century.
- A Foucault pendulum swing is a simple device that is mainly used to illustrate the Earth’s rotation.
- The pendulum consists of a bob suspended at the end of a long, strong wire from a fixed point in the ceiling and the imaginary surface across which the wire and the bob swing is known as the “plane of the swing”.
- If this pendulum is placed at the North Pole, it will basically be swinging as the Earth rotates ‘below’ and the plane of the swing to the person standing on the Earth’s surface will seem to rotate by a full circle as the earth completes one rotation
- If the pendulum is placed over the equator, the plane won’t appear to shift at all as it will be rotating along with the Earth.
- If the pendulum is placed at any other latitude, the plane will shift through 360 degrees in “one sidereal day divided by the sine of the latitude of its location”.
Syllabus: GS-1; Art and Culture;
Prelims: About Kheer Bhawani mela
Hundreds of Kashmiri Pandits celebrated the Kheer Bhawani mela at the famous Ragnya Devi temple in Ganderbal district and other shrines in Jammu and Kashmir
Kheer Bhawani mela
- Kheer Bhawani mela is an annual festival celebrated by the Kashmiri Pandits.
- Mata Kheer Bhawani is considered to be the deity of Kashmiri Pandits
- Kheer Bhawani Melas are held every year at five shrines across Kashmir. They are:
- Ragnya Bagwati shrine at Tulmulla in Ganderbal,
- Ragnya Bagwati shrine at Manzgam in Kulgam
- Tripursundri shrine at Devsar in Kulgam
- Ragnya Bagwati shrine at Logripora in Anantnag
- Ragnya Bagwati temple complex at Tikkar in Kupwara.
- The festival is associated with Hindu Goddess Ragnya Devi.
- Kheer Bhavani Mela is usually organized coinciding with the Jyeshtha Ashtami.
- The Kheer Bhawani Mela represents a unique amalgamation of spirituality, culture, and communal harmony and is said to be a significant cultural event for Kashmiris across religious lines.
- During the festival, the devoltees walk barefoot, carry rose petals and offer them as tribute to the goddess while the men take a dip in the stream close to the shrine.
Prelims: About Palme d’Or and Cannes Film Festival
Justine Triet became only the third woman to win Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival 2023.
Palme d’Or Award
- Palme d’Or, which translates to “The Golden Palm” is said to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry.
- Palme d’Or is awarded to the film which is judged as the best among those competing at the Cannes Film Festival.
- It was introduced in 1955 by the festival’s organising committee.
- The Palme d’Or awards are regarded as jewellery marvels. The award is of 24-carat gold, is hand-cast into a wax mold, then affixed to a cushion of a single piece of cut crystal and is now presented in a case of blue Morocco leather
- The award is designed in a way to reflect Cannes’s coat of arms and the palm trees lining the Promenade de la Croisette, which is the road with the convention centre that hosts Cannes every year.
- 1946’s Neecha Nagar, directed by Chetan Anand is the only Indian film to win a Palme d’Or award.
Cannes Film Festival
- Cannes Film Festival is one of the “big five” international film festivals which also include the Venice Film Festival, the Berlin International Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival and the Sundance Film Festival.
- The first Cannes festival was supposed to be held in 1939, however, it was delayed until 1946 owing to World War II.
- This Film Festival is held annually in Cannes, France.
- The festival was formally accredited by the FIAPF in 1951.
- It previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from all around the world.
- As per the Joint Malnutrition Estimates released jointly by UNICEF, the WHO and the World Bank, India has continued to witness a reduction in stunting and recorded 1.6 crore fewer stunted children under five years in 2022 as compared to 2012 figures.
- India’s share of the global burden of stunting has also declined to 25% from 30% in the last ten years.
- The decline in stunting in India is also in line with National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5 data (2019-2021) which estimated its prevalence at 35.5% as against 38% in NFHS-4 (2016) and 48% in NFHS-3 (2006).
- Globally, the prevalence rate of stunting declined from 26.3% in 2012 to 22.3% in 2022.
- According to the estimates, the overall prevalence of wasting in 2022 was 18.7% in India, with a share of 49% in the global burden.
- The prevalence of obesity, however, has increased slightly from 2.2% in 2012 to 2.8% in 2022 with 8.8% global share.
- The JME report further points out that there has been insufficient progress to reach the 2025 World Health Assembly’s global nutrition targets and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 targets as only about one-third of all countries are ‘on track’ to halve the number of children affected by stunting by 2030.
- The infection of dengue, which was restricted to only eight States in 2001, has now covered all the States and Union Territories in India with two cases recently being reported in Ladakh.
- The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has recently confirmed that dengue’s infection geography has widened as India gets ready to welcome the southwest monsoon, which is usually associated with the increase in diseases such as malaria, dengue and zika.
- The infection geography of dengue has expanded significantly owing to a shortage of entomologists, a trickier vector, increased travel, and less public participation for prevention.
- According to ICMR the risk from dengue, which is now endemic in over 100 countries, has been aggravated by factors like climate change, increased urbanisation and increased travel.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has also estimated that the global incidence of dengue has increased significantly in the recent decades, with half of the world population now at risk.
- As per the Central government’s paper on dengue outbreaks in India, the dengue vector is very different from the malaria vector and thus, bio-environmental strategies alone would not work.
- The challenges associated with the Aedes-borne diseases include – day-biting habit, multiple biting, long incubation period, fast transport, eggs retained up to one year, container breeding, and intermittent water supply and poor waste management at construction sites.
- ICMR is working on vaccines, increasing awareness, promoting prevention, people’s participation, and has adopted latest technologies such as satellite imaging and drones to map vulnerable areas.
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. With reference to International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Consider the following statements: (Level – Difficult)
- The organization develops and publishes standardization in all technical and nontechnical fields.
- It is a specialized agency of the United Nations created in 1947 and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
- India is a founding member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
How many of the above statements are correct?
- Only one
- Only two
- All three
- Statement 1 is not correct, The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) develops and publishes standardization in all technical and nontechnical fields other than electrical and electronic engineering.
- The standardization of electrical and electronic engineering is handled by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
- Statement 2 is not correct, ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 168 national standards bodies.
- The ISO has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
- Statement 3 is correct, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is a founder member of ISO. BIS represents India in the ISO.
Q2. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is member of which of the following International Organizations? (Level – Difficult)
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
- International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
- Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC)
- South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO)
- World Standards Service Network (WSSN)
- 1, 2 and 3 only
- 3, 4 and 5 only
- 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
- 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
- BIS is a founding member of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and it joined the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1947.
- BIS is also a member of regional standards bodies like Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC), South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO), World Standards Service Network (WSSN) and under the framework of IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa).
Q3. Consider the following statements: (Level – Difficult)
- Sagar Parikrama is an initiative taken by Government of India, with an aim to resolve the issues of the fishers, other stakeholders and facilitate their economic upliftment through various fisheries schemes and programs
- First Phase of “Sagar Parikrama” started from Sasson Dock, Mumbai.
- India is the 3rd largest fish producing country with about 8% share in global fish production and stands 2nd in aquaculture production.
How many of the above statements are correct?
- Only one
- Only two
- All three
- Statement 1 is correct, Sagar Parikrama is an initiative taken by Government of India, with an aim to resolve the issues of the fishers, other stakeholders and facilitate their economic upliftment through various fisheries schemes and programs implemented by the Government of India such as Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) and Kisan Credit Card (KCC).
- Statement 2 is not correct, Phase-I of the programme Sagar Parikrama was organised in Gujarat in March 2022 from Mandvi and ended on at Porbandar, Gujarat.
- Phase –II programme started in September 2022 from Mangrol to Veraval, Mul Dwaraka, and finally ended at Madhwad.
- Phase-III programme started in Feb 2023 from Surat, Gujarat, and ended at Sasson Dock, Mumbai.
- Phase-IV programme started from Mormugao Port, Goa in March 2023 and ended in Mangalore.
- Statement 3 is correct, India is the third largest fish producing country which accounts for 8% of the global fish production.
- India also ranks second in aquaculture production.
Q4. Consider the following statements: (Level – Moderate)
The total number of ministers, including the chief minister, in the council of ministers in a state shall not exceed 15 per cent of the total strength of the legislative assembly of that state. But, the number of ministers, including the chief minister, in a state shall not be less than 15.
This provision was added by the 91st Amendment Act of 2003.
Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?
- Both Statement—I and Statement—II are correct and Statement—II is the correct explanation for Statement—I
- Both Statement—I and Statement—II are correct and Statement—Il is not the correct explanation for Statement—I
- Statement—I is correct but Statement—II is incorrect
- Statement—I is incorrect but Statement—II is correct
- According to Article 164 (1A) of the Constitution, the total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed fifteen per cent. of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State:
- Provided that the number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister in a State shall not be less than twelve.
- This clause was introduced/added through the 91st Constitutional Amendment Act of 2003.
- Hence “Statement—I is incorrect but Statement—II is correct”.
Q5. Which one of the following countries has its own satellite Navigation System? (Level – Moderate) PYQ (2023)
- The following countries have their own navigation satellite system.
- The United States: GPS – World’s most used GPS system, operational from 1978. Constellation of 32 satellites.
- Russia: GLONASS – Constellation of 24 satellites.
- European Union: Galileo – Became operational in 2016, with a constellation of 30 satellites.
- China: BeiDou – Currently it provides regional coverage of the Asia- Pacific region, plans to provide global coverage by 2020.
- Japan: Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) – It is a regional satellite system covering Japan and Asia-Oceania region.
- India: NAVIC or The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System.
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- The ongoing US – China chip war has significant implications on India as well. Discuss. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-2; International Relations)
- Despite multiple conferences and summits, the world is all set to breach the 1.5 degree temperature increase mark. Identify the reasons for this collective failure. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS-3; Environment)
Read the previous CNA here.
CNA 29 May 2023:- Download PDF Here