UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Global Hunger Index
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a multidimensional statistical tool that measures the progress and failures in the fight against hunger on a global level and is used to describe the state of countries’ hunger situation. GHI is released by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) based in Washington in association with Concern Worldwide of Ireland and Welthungerhilfe (German non-profit organization). GHI ranks countries on a 100 point scale, 0 representing zero / no hunger.
The GHI scores are based on four indicators. Taken together, the component indicators reflect deficiencies in calories as well as in micronutrients. Thus, the GHI reflects both aspects of hunger (undernutrition and malnutrition).
- UNDERNOURISHMENT: the share of the population whose caloric intake is insufficient.
- CHILD STUNTING: the share of children under the age of five who have low height for their age.
- CHILD WASTING: the share of children under the age of five who have low weight for their height.
- CHILD MORTALITY: the mortality rate of children under the age of five (a reflection of the fatal mix of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments).
As per report titled “2017 global hunger index: The inequalities of hunger” India has ranked 100 among 119 developing countries.
- With a score of 31.4, India is at the high end of “serious” hunger problem category and one of the main factors pushing South Asia to the category of the worst-performing region.
- India has seen low improvement (i.e. 38.2 in 2000 to 31.4 in 2017) in hunger prevalence despite being world’s second largest food producer, and world’s fastest growing economy.
- India’s poor performance shows country’s stubbornly high proportions of malnourished children — with about 21% Indian children under five suffer from wasting and 38.4 % from stunting.
Status of Hunger across the world
- The level of hunger across the Globe has declined by 27% since 2000.
- South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara have the highest levels of hunger, at 30.9 and 29.4, respectively.
- The hunger level in East and South – East Asia has been moderate primarily due to low prevalence of hunger in China, reflecting widespread inequalities in prevalence of hunger within the regions as well.