Gonds Tribe of India

Gonds are one of the largest tribal groups in India. Gond people are spread across many states of India – Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh.

This article will provide information about the Gonds Tribe of India in the context of the IAS Exam.

It is useful for both GS Paper I and GS Paper-II of the UPSC Syllabus.

The candidates can read more relevant information from the links provided below:


  • Gonds speak regional languages like Marathi, Odia and Hindi.
  • There is a relation between Telugu and Gond language.
  • The population of Gonds was around 11 million as per Census 2001. The population of Gonds was 5.01 million as per 1971 Census.
  • In Chhattisgarh, the Bastar region is the home of three main Gonds tribes – Hill Maria, Bisonhorn Maria, the Muria.
  • The Hill Maria of the Gond tribe are the most isolated among them, they live in the rough terrains of Abujhmar Hills.
  • Bisonhorn Maria tribes are found in and around Jagdalpur of Chhattisgarh. They are also found in the Gadchiroli region of Maharashtra.
  • Dandami Maria is the dialect spoken by these tribes.
  • Bisonhorn Maria Gonds tribe got their name from the headgear worn by the men while dancing.
  • Bisonhorn Maria of the Gonds tribe cultivate their fields with bullocks and plows. They have more permanent fields. They live in places where it is less-hilly.

Gonds – History

  • One of the first kingdoms of Gonds was Chanda, which was founded in 1200.
  • The first defined revenue system among the Gond kingdoms was introduced in the Kingdom of Chanda.
  • Extensive irrigation system was developed by the Kingdom of Chanda.
  • The Kingdom of Chanda was also the first Gond kingdom to start building forts, which later on increased in sophistication.
  • The previous Kalachuri rulers were deposed by Jaduri in the 14th century and went on to establish the Kingdom of Garha.
  • Rani Durgavati is the most famous warrior-queen of Garha-Mandla.
  • Until her death in 1564, Rani Durgavati fought against Akbar.
  • Bir Narayan was the son of warrior queen Rani Durgavati and ruled the kingdom after her death. Even Bir Narayan fought against Mughals till his death.
  • The Gond kingdoms were conquered by Mughals for some duration, eventually the Gond rajas were restored and put under hegemony of the Mughals.
  • Until the Third-Anglo Maratha war, the territories of Gond rajas were occupied by Marathas.
  • After the war, the British took over the revenue collection by controlling the Gond Zamindaris.
  • The colonial forest management practices of the British, marginalised the Gonds.
  • The Gonds depended on the forests for their livelihoods, their rights were snatched away by the discriminatory forest policies of the British.
  • This led to the famous Bastar Rebellion in 1910, which was an armed struggle against the British.

Gonds – Salwa Judum

  • To fight the Naxalite insurgency, the Government of Chhattisgarh had formed Salwa Judum, a group of Gond people.
  • On 5 July 2011, the Supreme Court of India disbanded Salwa Judum.

Gond Painting

  • There is a rich tradition of ruling over Central India by the Gonds of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Nature was worshipped by the Gonds.
  • Paintings of Gonds of Mandla and its surrounding regions have colourful depictions of flora, humans, and animals.
  • The paintings have geometric designs, they are done on the walls of huts.
  • The paintings depict gopis with pots on their heads, and cows surrounding Krishna.

Gonds Tribe of India [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

Frequently Asked Questions on Gonds Tribe of India

What are Gond tribes famous for?

Gond tribe is famous for its vibrant artworks. These art forms are exhibited in galleries worldwide. Earlier, these artworks were confined to decorating their homes.

What is the religion of the Gond tribe?

Worshipping Nature was the age-old practice of the Gond tribes. Hindu religion had a significant influence on the religious practices of the Gond tribe.

What are Gond tribes?

Gonds are one of the largest tribal groups in India. Gond people are spread across many states of India – Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh.

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