The tribal people in India are around 8.6% of the total population. It is an important topic for aspirants preparing for the IAS Exam.
According to Article 366(25) of the Constitution, Scheduled Tribes are those communities that are scheduled in accordance with Article 342 of the Constitution. Also, Article 342 of the Constitution says that: The Scheduled Tribes are the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within these tribes and tribal communities which have been declared as such by the President through a public notification.
Among the tribal groups, several have adapted to modern life but there are tribal groups who are more vulnerable. The Dhebar Commission (1973) created a separate category “Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs)” which was renamed in 2006 as “Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)”.
Important Facts about Scheduled Tribes
|In how many states do we find Scheduled Tribes?||The STs are notified in 30 states and UTs|
|How many numbers of individual ethnic groups are notified as STs?||705|
|What is the population of Scheduled Tribes in India?||Approximately 10.43 crores|
|What is the rural and urban population of STs in India?||
|What is the sex ratio of STs?||990;
Rural – 991
Urban – 980
|Which Indian state has the largest population of STs?||Madhya Pradesh has 14.7% of total STs population; followed by Maharashtra (10.1%)|
|Which Indian states/UTs have no listed STs?||Five states/UTs of India have no listed STs:
|Source – Census of India 2011|
Schedule Tribes Notes:- Download PDF Here
Scheduled Tribes in India
According to the 2011 Census, the Scheduled Tribes account for 104 million representing 8.6% of the country’s population. These Scheduled Tribes are spread throughout the country largely in forest and hilly regions.
- The essential characteristics of these communities are:-
- Primitive Traits
- Geographical isolation
- Distinct culture
- Shy of contact with community at large
- Economically backwards
- As in the case of the SCs, the Plan objective of empowering the tribals is being achieved through a three-pronged strategy of social empowerment, economic empowerment and social justice.
An important topic related to Scheduled Tribes– Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989
- Also read, Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Amendment Act, 2015. Click here
Statewise Scheduled Tribes List
The total number of Scheduled Tribes in each State/UT is tabled below. Candidates can find the PDF of complete list of STs state-wise below the table:
|List of STs||State/UTs||List of STs||State/UTs||
List of STs
|Arunachal Pradesh||16||Kerala||43||Tamil Nadu||36|
|Himachal Pradesh||10||Nagaland||5||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||6|
|Jammu & Kashmir||12||Odisha||62||Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu||12|
|Andhra Pradesh||Andh And Sadhu Andh, Bhil, Bhaghata, Dhulia,rona, Kolam, Gond, Thoti, Goundu, Kammara, Savaras, Dabba Yerukula, Sugalis, Nakkala, Pardhan, Gadabas, Chenchus A.k.a Chenchawar, Kattunayakan, Jatapus, Manna Dhora|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Singpho, Monpa, Abor, Sherdukpen, Galo, Apatanis|
|Assam||Khasis, Chakma, Dimasa, Gangte, Garos, Hajong, Chutiya|
|Bihar||Gond, Birjia, Asur, Savar, Parhaiya, Chero, Birhor, Santhals, Baiga|
|Chhattisgarh||Nagasia, Biar, Khond, Agariya, Bhattra, Mawasi, Bhaina,|
|Goa||Varli, Dubia, Siddi, Dhodia, Naikda|
|Gujarat||Patelia, Bhil, Dhodia, Bamcha, Barda, Paradhi, Charan, Gamta|
|Himachal Pradesh||Swangal, Gujjars, Lahaulas, Khas, Pangwala, Lamba, Gaddis|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Balti, Garra, Sippi, Bakarwal, Mon, Gaddi, Purigpa, Beda|
|Jharkhand||Gonds, Birhors, Savar, Mundas, Santhals, Khaira, Bhumji|
|Karnataka||Gond, Patelia, Barda, Yerava, Bhil, Koraga, Adiyan, Iruliga,|
|Kerala||Malai, Aarayan, Arandan, Uralis, Kurumbas, Arandan, Eranvallan|
|Madhya Pradesh||Kharia, Bhils, Murias, Birhors, Baigas, Katkari, Kol, Bharia, Khond, Gonds,|
|Maharashtra||Warlis, Khond, Bhaina, Katkari, Bhunjia, Rathawa, Dhodia.|
|Manipur||Thadou, Aimol, Maram, Paite, Chiru, Purum, Kuki, Monsang, Angami|
|Meghalaya||Pawai, Chakma, Raba, Hajong, Lakher, Garos, Jaintias Khasis|
|Mizoram||Dimasa, Raba, Chakma, Lakher, Khasi, Synteng, Kuki, Pawai.|
|Nagaland||Nagas, Angami, Sema, Garo, Kuki, Kachari, Mikir|
|Odisha||Gadaba, Ghara, Kharia, Khond, Matya, Oraons, Rajuar, Santhals.|
|Rajasthan||Bhils, Damaria, Dhanka, Meenas(Minas), Patelia, Sahariya.|
|Sikkim||Bhutia, Khas, Lepchas.|
|Tamil Nadu||Adiyan, Aranadan, Eravallan, Irular, Kadar, Kanikar, Kotas, Todas.|
|Tripura||Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Chakma, Halam, Khasia, Lushai, Mizel, Namte.|
|Uttarakhand||Bhotias, Buksa, Jannsari, Khas, Raji, Tharu.|
|Uttar Pradesh||Bhotia, Buksa, Jaunsari, Kol, Raji, Tharu.|
|West Bengal||Asur, Khond, Hajong, Ho, Parhaiya, Rabha, Santhals, Savar.|
|Andaman and Nicobar||Oraons, Onges, Sentinelese, Shompens.|
|North-East||Abhors, Chang, Galaong, Mishimi, Singpho, Wancho.|
Candidates can download the state-wise complete list of STs in India from the link below:
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
PVTGs (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups) are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. Due to this factor, more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds, because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development.
- In 1975, the Indian Government declared 52 tribal groups as PVTGs
- In 1993, 23 groups were added to the list.
- Hence, there are 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes
- Odisha has the highest number of PVTGs. In 2020, the Odisha government further identified 888 villages/hamlets inhabited by PVTGs
- The PVTGs are spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census).
- Characteristics of PVTGs:
- Population – stangnant/declining
- Technology – pre-agricultural
- Literacy Level – extremely low
- Economy – Subsistence level
|Andhra Pradesh & Telangana||Maharashtra|
|Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh||Uttarakhand|
|Andaman & Nicobar Islands||–|
Download the list of 75 PVTGs in India from the link given below:
UPSC Questions related to Scheduled Tribes in India
What is the difference between 5th Schedule and 6th Schedule?
- Article 244 in Part X of the Constitution envisages a special system of administration for certain areas designated as ‘scheduled areas and ‘tribal areas’.
- The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes in many states except the four states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
- While the Sixth Scheduled of the Constitution deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
It makes special provisions for “tribal areas”. The rationality behind the special arrangements is that:
- The tribes in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram have not assimilated much with the life and ways of the other people in these states.
- These areas have hitherto been anthropological specimens.
- The tribes in these 4 states still have their roots in their own culture, customs and civilization.
|Schedule of the Constitution||States|
Click on the link to read more about Scheduled and Tribal Areas.
Why tribals are called Scheduled Tribes?
- The Tribals/Tribes are called Scheduled Tribes as they are included in one of the Schedules of the Constitution of India.
Get free UPSC Indian Polity Notes PDF from the linked article.
Schedule Tribes Notes:- Download PDF Here