The Constitution of India does not give any definition for Scheduled Tribes. But it is an important topic for aspirants preparing for the IAS Exam.
According to Article 366(25) of the Constitution, Scheduled Tribes are those communities who are scheduled in accordance with Article 342 of the Constitution. Also, Article 342 of the Constitution says that: The Scheduled Tribes are the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within these tribes and tribal communities which have been declared as such by the President through a public notification.
Schedule Tribes Notes:- Download PDF Here
Scheduled Tribes in India
According to the 2011 Census, the Scheduled Tribes account for 104 million representing 8.6% of the country’s population. These Scheduled Tribes are spread throughout the country largely in forest and hilly regions.
- The essential characteristics of these communities are:-
- Primitive Traits
- Geographical isolation
- Distinct culture
- Shy of contact with community at large
- Economically backwards
- As in the case of the SCs, the Plan objective of empowering the tribals is being achieved through a three-pronged strategy of social empowerment, economic empowerment and social justice.
An important topic related to Scheduled Tribes– Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989
Note on Primitive Tribal Groups
There are certain tribal communities who have declining or stagnant population among these scheduled tribes. They have a low level of literacy, possess a pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
- 75 such groups in 18 States and 1 Union Territory have been identified and categorized as Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs).
- A majority of these groups have not attained any significant level of social and economic progress. They generally inhabit remote localities which have poor infrastructure and barely any administrative support.
- This makes them the most vulnerable sections among the scheduled tribes and a priority is required to be accorded for their protection, keeping in check the declining trend of their population and their development.
Also read, Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Amendment Act, 2015. Click here
Statewise Scheduled Tribes List
|Andhra Pradesh||Andh And Sadhu Andh, Bhil, Bhaghata, Dhulia,rona, Kolam, Gond, Thoti, Goundu, Kammara, Savaras, Dabba Yerukula, Sugalis, Nakkala, Pardhan, Gadabas, Chenchus A.k.a Chenchawar, Kattunayakan, Jatapus, Manna Dhora|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Singpho, Monpa, Abor, Sherdukpen, Galo, Apatanis|
|Assam||Khasis, Chakma, Dimasa, Gangte, Garos, Hajong, Chutiya|
|Bihar||Gond, Birjia, Asur, Savar, Parhaiya, Chero, Birhor, Santhals, Baiga|
|Chhattisgarh||Nagasia, Biar, Khond, Agariya, Bhattra, Mawasi, Bhaina,|
|Goa||Varli, Dubia, Siddi, Dhodia, Naikda|
|Gujarat||Patelia, Bhil, Dhodia, Bamcha, Barda, Paradhi, Charan, Gamta|
|Himachal Pradesh||Swangal, Gujjars, Lahaulas, Khas, Pangwala, Lamba, Gaddis|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Balti, Garra, Sippi, Bakarwal, Mon, Gaddi, Purigpa, Beda|
|Jharkhand||Gonds, Birhors, Savar, Mundas, Santhals, Khaira, Bhumji|
|Karnataka||Gond, Patelia, Barda, Yerava, Bhil, Koraga, Adiyan, Iruliga,|
|Kerala||Malai, Aarayan, Arandan, Uralis, Kurumbas, Arandan, Eranvallan|
|Madhya Pradesh||Kharia, Bhils, Murias, Birhors, Baigas, Katkari, Kol, Bharia, Khond, Gonds,|
|Maharashtra||Warlis, Khond, Bhaina, Katkari, Bhunjia, Rathawa, Dhodia.|
|Manipur||Thadou, Aimol, Maram, Paite, Chiru, Purum, Kuki, Monsang, Angami|
|Meghalaya||Pawai, Chakma, Raba, Hajong, Lakher, Garos, Jaintias Khasis|
|Mizoram||Dimasa, Raba, Chakma, Lakher, Khasi, Synteng, Kuki, Pawai.|
|Nagaland||Nagas, Angami, Sema, Garo, Kuki, Kachari, Mikir|
|Odisha||Gadaba, Ghara, Kharia, Khond, Matya, Oraons, Rajuar, Santhals.|
|Rajasthan||Bhils, Damaria, Dhanka, Meenas(Minas), Patelia, Sahariya.|
|Sikkim||Bhutia, Khas, Lepchas.|
|Tamil Nadu||Adiyan, Aranadan, Eravallan, Irular, Kadar, Kanikar, Kotas, Todas.|
|Tripura||Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Chakma, Halam, Khasia, Lushai, Mizel, Namte.|
|Uttarakhand||Bhotias, Buksa, Jannsari, Khas, Raji, Tharu.|
|Uttar Pradesh||Bhotia, Buksa, Jaunsari, Kol, Raji, Tharu.|
|West Bengal||Asur, Khond, Hajong, Ho, Parhaiya, Rabha, Santhals, Savar.|
|Andaman and Nicobar||Oraons, Onges, Sentinelese, Shompens.|
|North-East||Abhors, Chang, Galaong, Mishimi, Singpho, Wancho.|
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
PVTG (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups) are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. Due to this factor, more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds, because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development.
- In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups.
- In 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes
- The PVTGs are spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census).
|Andhra Pradesh & Telangana||Maharashtra|
|Madhya Pradesh & Chattisgarh||Uttarakhand|
|Andaman & Nicobar Islands||–|
UPSC Questions related to Scheduled Tribes in India
What is the difference between 5th Schedule and 6th Schedule?
- Article 244 in Part X of the Constitution envisages a special system of administration for certain areas designated as ‘scheduled areas and ‘tribal areas’.
- The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes in many states except the four states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
- While the Sixth Scheduled of the Constitution deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four northeastern states of Assam Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
It makes special provisions for “tribal areas”. The rationality behind the special arrangements is that:
- The tribes in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram have not assimilated much with the life and ways of the other people in these states.
- These areas have hitherto been anthropological specimens.
- The tribes in these 4 states still have their roots in their own culture, customs and civilization.
|Schedule of the Constitution||States|
Click on the link to read more about Scheduled and Tribal Areas.
Why tribals are called Scheduled Tribes?
- The Tribals/Tribes are called Scheduled Tribes as they are included in one of the Schedules of the Constitution of India.
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Schedule Tribes Notes:- Download PDF Here