What are the Main Global Institutions?

There are more than 300 global institutions which are formed by multiple governments across the globe. The most well known global institution that comes to anyone’s mind is the United Nations Organization (UNO) formed after World War II in 1945. It was formed to avoid future wars on global scale. List of some of the main global institutions formed with cooperation of governments of many countries are given below.

  1. UNO – It has currently peacekeeping missions across all the continents. Most of the peacekeeping missions are distributed in Africa and Asia. India is one of the largest contributors for United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions by providing one of the highest numbers of armed combatants, to maintain peace in the countries facing conflicts.
  2. World Health Organisation (WHO) – It is part of the UN.It makes sure that health issues across the globe are duly detected and addressed. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
  3. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – It is an organisation under the UN for promoting international collaboration on education, science and culture. It is headquartered in Paris, France.
  4. International Court of Justice (ICJ) – It is one of the main organisations of the UN, tasked with the responsibility of resolving disputes between nations. India had recently approached ICJ in the Kulbushan Jadav case, who is held captive by Pakistan. ICJ is headquartered in Hague, Netherlands.
  5. European Union (E.U.) – It is an organisation formed by 27 nations of Europe. It is a political and economic organisation. It is headquartered in Brussels, capital of Belgium. The E.U came into existence with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. In January 2020, the United Kingdom (U.K) became the first country to leave E.U.

Aspirants would find this topic very helpful in the IAS Exam.

Which are the 3 Major International Economic Institutions or Organisations?

The main objective of international economic institutions is to increase exports, imports; resolve disputes between nations,provide a level playing field to all countries, and help in increasing the economic cooperation between them, which will ultimately help in the growth of international trade. These institutions solve currency issues, stabilizing exchange rates etc.The list of 3 important economic organisations are given below.

  1. World Trade Organization (WTO) – It was established in 1995. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. It has 153 members and represents more than 97% of the world trade.
  2. International Monetary Fund (IMF) – It was established in 1945. It is headquartered in Washington D.C. It has 187 countries as its members. 
  3. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – It was established in 1964, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The 2nd UNCTAD conference was held in New Delhi in 1968. It has 195 countries as its members.

Which are the International Organizations that have its Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland?

The list of some international organizations having its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland are given below.

  1. UNCTAD
  2. WHO
  3. WTO
  4. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) – Established in 1967
  5. World Economic Forum (WEF)  – Established in in 1971
  6. International Committee of the Red Cross

What is NATO?

NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It was formed with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4th April, 1949. It is an intergovernmental military organisation formed by 12 countries.NATO is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Currently it has 30 European and North American Countries as its members. Allied Command Operations are headquartered in Mons located in Belgium.North Macedonia was the latest member to be included in NATO on 27th March, 2020. 

The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2020.

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