National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)- UPSC Notes

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) established on 14th August 1993 is a constitutional body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. It was formed under the National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993. This Commission was formed as an initiative for investigating the conditions and difficulties of the socially and educationally backward classes and thus making appropriate recommendations.

Some of the highlights of NCBC are mentioned in the table below:

NCBC full form National Commission for Backward Classes
Year of formation 14th August 1993
NCBC Headquarters Delhi
NCBC Chairman Bhagwan Lal Sahni

NCBC is an important topic for the IAS Exam and is included under the GS-II section of UPSC Syllabus. Candidates can also download the notes PDF at the end of this article.

Aspirants preparing for the upcoming IAS Exam must go through the information mentioned further below in this article.

Start your Civil Services Exam preparation with the UPSC Previous Year QuestionPapers now!!

Also, refer to the following links:

How was NCBC formed?


  1. The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was an outcome of the Indra Sawhney case (Mandal Commission)of 1992.
  2. In the final verdict of the Mandal Commission, the Supreme Court of India had addressed the formation of NCBC as a statutory body. Know in detail about the Mandal Commission and its effect on the linked page.
  3. Headquartered in Delhi, the National Commission for Backward Classes was established on August 14, 1993, under the NCBC Act of 1993.
  4. NCBC, in the year 2015, proposed that a person having an annual family income of up to ₹15 lakhs and belonging to the OBC caste will be considered as a minimum ceiling for OBC.
  5. It also recommended that OBC can be sub-divided into ‘backwards’, ‘more backwards’ and ‘extremely backward’ categories. As per NCBC, the number of backward castes in the year 2016  increased to 5013 in the Central list of OBCs.

Structure of NCBC
The National Commission for Backward Classes consists of five regulatory members which include the  Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other members with a tenure period of three years.  The current regulatory members of NCBC are mentioned in the table below:

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)
Chairperson Mr.Bhagwan Lal Sahni
Vice-Chairperson Dr. Lokesh Kumar Prajapati
Member 1 Mrs. Sudha Yadav
Member 2 Mr. Kaushlendra Singh Patel
Member 3 Mr. Thalloju Achary

Constitutional Provisions

  • Article 340 deals with the need to, inter alia, identify those “socially and educationally backward classes”, understand the conditions of their backwardness, and make recommendations to remove the difficulties they face.
  • 102nd Constitution Amendment Act inserted new Articles 338 B and 342 A.
  • The amendment also brings about changes in Article 366.
  • Article 338B provides authority to NCBC to examine complaints and welfare measures regarding socially and educationally backward classes.
  • Article 342 A empowers President to specify socially and educationally backward classes in various states and union territories. He can do this in consultation with the Governor of the concerned State. However, the law enacted by Parliament will be required if the list of backward classes is to be amended.

NCBC- Powers and Functions

  1. To investigate and monitor all the matters of the socially and educationally backward classes under the Constitution or under any other law that are related to the proper working of the safeguards provided.
  2. To participate and advise actively on the socio-economic development of the socially backward classes along with evaluating the progress of their development.
  3. It annually presents the reports based on the working of the safeguards to the President. If any of those reports relate to any matter which is concerned with the State Government,  a copy of that report is forwarded to the State Government.
  4. NCBC is responsible for the protection, welfare, development and advancement of the socially and educationally backward classes.

National Commission for Backward Classes – Benefits

  • Providing justice to the socially and educationally backward sections of society.
  • Address the concerns of the backward classes and bring social equality in society.
  • Help the backward classes people fight atrocities against them and ensure quick justice to them.
  • Including a woman member from the backward classes in the proposed Commission is a welcome move.
  • It would also not encroach upon the rights of state governments as they would have their own backward class commissions.
  • It brings the NCBC on par with the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.

Aspirants can check out the relevant links provided below to prepare for the upcoming UPSC exam more comprehensively-

Reservation – Bringing Equality in Society Sub Categorization of OBC Quantifying the caste quotas
National Commission for Scheduled Castes Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989 National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
National Commission for Minorities (NCM) National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) Minority Protection and India 
National Commission For Women National Human Rights Commission of India – NHRC Types of Constitutional Bodies in India
Reservation demands: What’s the solution? Will reservation in the private sector stem Naxalism? Status of Tribal Population in India

Challenges associated with NCBC

  • Many states have not implemented 27 per cent reservation to the OBCs.
  • Mere Acts will not do as they did not percolate down to the grassroots level, as recent data showed that only 7 out of 100 teachers in the Central Universities belonged to SC/ST and OBC categories.
  • OBCs have a negligible presence in the Supreme Court and high courts.
  • Skewed representation of OBCs in various committees, commissions, boards and other different forms of government.
  • The recommendations of the commissions are not binding on the government.
  • Critics argue about the scope of reservation when NITI Aayog is promoting public-private partnerships and privatization of public sector undertakings.

Way Forward with NCBC

  • There is a need for a proper representation of the backward classes of the deprived sections to join the national mainstream.
  • The government must make public the findings of the caste census and implement reservation accordingly.
  • The sub-categorization of OBCs will ensure increased access to benefits such as reservations in educational institutions and government jobs for less dominant OBCs.
  • Political parties should “rise above vote bank politics and work towards social justice”.

NCBC is an important constitutional body of India that investigates the conditions and difficulties of the socially and educationally backward classes. Candidates preparing for UPSC 2023 should keep a track on the latest developments in the country as they form an important part for the Civil Service Exam.

NCBC (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

FAQ about National Commission For Backward Classes


What is the 102 amendment?

The 102nd Amendment inserted Article 338B into the Constitution.This article provides for the establishment of a commission for the socially and educationally backward classes to be known as the National Commission for Backward Classes. The NCBC thus received a constitutional status after this amendment was passed.

What is Article 338 A?

Article 338 of the Constitution of India originally provided for the appointment of a Special Officer for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes charged with the duty to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution and to report tothe president upon the working of these safeguards at prescribed intervals.

Aspirants can find complete information about upcoming Government Exams through the linked article. UPSC exam-related preparation materials will be found through the links given below.


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