- It is the period from the first century BCE to the end of the second century CE in south India.
- There were 3 Sangams conducted in ancient South India called Muchchangam, Tamil legends say.
- These Sangams prospered under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.
- Three dynasties ruled during the Sangam Age – the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas.
- The key source of evidence about these kingdoms is outlined from the literary references of Sangam Period.
- The Cheras ruled over large parts of modern-day Kerala.
- Vanji was the capital of the Cheras.
- Musiri and Tondi were the important seaports in this period.
- The emblem of Cheras is the ‘bow and arrow’.
- The first-century Pugalur inscriptions references to 3 generations of Chera kings.
- Senguttuvan (2nd century CE) was the prominent ruler of the Chera dynasty.
- The military achievements of Senguttuvan have been recorded in the epic Silapathikaram, which talks about his Himalayan expedition where he vanquished many rulers from northern India.
- Senguttuvan introduced in Tamil Nadu the Pattini cult or the worship of Kannagi as the ideal wife.
- He was the first to send an ambassador to China from South India.
- The Chola kingdom of the Sangam period stretched from the present-day Tiruchi district to Southern Andhra Pradesh.
- Initially, the capital of the Cholas was Uraiyur. Later it was shifted to Puhar (also called Poompuhar).
- King Karikala was a prominent king of the Sangam Chola dynasty.
- The insignia/emblem of the Cholas was ‘tiger’.
- Pattinappalai written by Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar depicts his life as well as military achievements.
- Various Sangam poems mention the Battle of Venni where he defeated an alliance of the Cheras, Pandyas and 11 smaller chieftains.
- Vahaipparandalai was another important battle fought by Karikala.
- Trade and commerce prospered during his rule.
- He also constructed irrigation tanks near river Kaveri to make available water for reclaimed land from the forest for farming.
- The Pandyas reigned over the Southern region of modern-day Tamil Nadu.
- Madurai was the capital of Pandyas.
- Their emblem was the ‘Carp’.
- King Neduncheliyan was also called Aryappadai Kadantha Neduncheliyan.
- According to mythology, the curse of the Kannagi, wife of Kovalan, burnt and destroyed Madurai.
- The socio-economic condition of the seaport of Korkai was mentioned in Maduraikkanji which was written by Mangudi Maruthanar.
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