UPSC IAS Exam: Political History of Sangam age

Sangam age
  • It is the period from the first century BCE to the end of the second century CE in south India.
  • There were 3 Sangams conducted in ancient South India called Muchchangam, Tamil legends say.
  • These Sangams prospered under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.
  • Three dynasties ruled during the Sangam Age – the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas.
  • The key source of evidence about these kingdoms is outlined from the literary references of Sangam Period.
Cheras
  • The Cheras ruled over large parts of modern-day Kerala.
  • Vanji was the capital of the Cheras.
  • Musiri and Tondi were the important seaports in this period.
  • The emblem of Cheras is the ‘bow and arrow’.
  • The first-century Pugalur inscriptions references to 3 generations of Chera kings.
  • Senguttuvan (2nd century CE) was the prominent ruler of the Chera dynasty.
  • The military achievements of Senguttuvan have been recorded in the epic Silapathikaram, which talks about his Himalayan expedition where he vanquished many rulers from northern India.
  • Senguttuvan introduced in Tamil Nadu the Pattini cult or the worship of Kannagi as the ideal wife.
  • He was the first to send an ambassador to China from South India.
Cholas
  • The Chola kingdom of the Sangam period stretched from the present-day Tiruchi district to Southern Andhra Pradesh.
  • Initially, the capital of the Cholas was Uraiyur. Later it was shifted to Puhar (also called Poompuhar).
  • King Karikala was a prominent king of the Sangam Chola dynasty.
  • The insignia/emblem of the Cholas was ‘tiger’.
  • Pattinappalai written by Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar depicts his life as well as military achievements.
  • Various Sangam poems mention the Battle of Venni where he defeated an alliance of the Cheras, Pandyas and 11 smaller chieftains.
  • Vahaipparandalai was another important battle fought by Karikala.
  • Trade and commerce prospered during his rule.
  • He also constructed irrigation tanks near river Kaveri to make available water for reclaimed land from the forest for farming.
Pandyas
  • The Pandyas reigned over the Southern region of modern-day Tamil Nadu.
  • Madurai was the capital of Pandyas.
  • Their emblem was the ‘Carp’.
  • King Neduncheliyan was also called Aryappadai Kadantha Neduncheliyan.
  • According to mythology, the curse of the Kannagi, wife of Kovalan, burnt and destroyed Madurai.
  • The socio-economic condition of the seaport of Korkai was mentioned in Maduraikkanji which was written by Mangudi Maruthanar.

 

Tune into byjus.com/free-ias-prep for more strategy articles and news on UPSC Civil Services IAS Exam

Also see: