Chronology of Ancient to Modern History of India

Chronological order of Indian history/Chronology of Indian history

Preparing history for UPSC civil services prelims exam can be relatively challenging for UPSC aspirants from science academic background. But it easy to tame history and culture once aspirants understand the knack of making notes and selective study. Here we are giving the important incidents in the Chronological order of Ancient to Modern History of India, i.e., the Indian history chronological order which can help your history preparation. In this post, you can also find the names of the rulers of India in chronological order. Indian History can be classified into three periods:

  • Ancient India
  • Medieval India
  • Modern India

Indian History timeline chart


Ancient India

Period: Prehistoric to AD 700

  • There were activities of Homo erectus in the Indian subcontinent 20 lakh years ago and of Homo sapiens since 70,000 BC.
  • The first inhabitants of Indian subcontinent might have been tribal like:
    • Nagas in North-East
    • Santhals in East-India
    • Bhils in Central India
    • Gonds in Central India
    • Todas in South India
  • These people speak Austric, pre-Dravidian languages like Munda and Gondvi.
  • Aryans and Dravidians are supposed to be immigrants who came later to the sub-continent.

 Paleolithic Period (2 million BC – 10,000 BC)

  • Important Palaeolithic sites are Kaladgi Basin, Bhimbetka, Hunsgi, Kurnool Caves, and Narmada Valley,
  • Tools made up of lime stone
  • Fire was discovered

Mesolithic Period (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC)

  • Microliths was found at Brahmagiri, Narmada, and Gujarat
  • Domestication of animals and Cattle rearing were started in this period
  • Significant climatic change happened

Neolithic Period (8000 BC – 4,000 BC)

  • Wheel discovered and agriculture was started in this period
  • Inamgaon is an early  Neolithic village
  • The major megalithic Sites are Brahmagiri and Adichanallur
  • Important Neolithic Sites:
    • Hallur(Andhra Pradesh)
    • Mahagara(Uttar Pradesh)
    • Maski
    • Paiyampalli(Andhra Pradesh)
    • Sangana Kaller
    • Utnur
    • Burzahom (Kashmir)
    • Chirand (Bihar)
    • Daojali Hading(Tripura and Assam)
    • Gufkral (Kashmir)
    • Kodekal
    • Koldihwa(Uttar Pradesh)
    • Mehrgarh (Pakistan)
    • Takkala Kota

Indus Valley Civilization (BC 2700 – BC 1900)

Chalcolithic Period (4000 BC – 1,500 BC)

  • It is also known as Copper Age and considered part of Bronze Age.

Iron Age (BC 1500 – BC 200)

  • Vedic Period and Arrival of Aryans
  • Basic books of Hinduism, Vedas were composed in this period.
  • Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
  • Mahajanapadas
  • Magadha empire- Bimbisara of Haryanka Kula
  • Sisunga dynasty – Kalasoka (Kakavarnin)
  • Nanda empire – Mahapadma-Nanda, Dhana-Nanda
  • Persians – Greek arrival: Alexander 327 BC

Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC)

  • 22–298 BCE- Chandragupta
  • 298–272 BCE- Bindusara
  • 268–232 BCE – Ashoka
  • Mauryan Kingdoms was succeeded by
    • Sunga (181-71 BC)
    • Kanva (71-27BC)
    • Satavahanas (235-100BC)
    • Indo-Greeks, Parthians (19-45AD)
    • Sakas (90BC-150AD)
    • Kushanas(78AD)

Gupta Kingdom (300AD – 800AD)

  • The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire
  • Samudra Gupta of Gupta kingdom is known as Indian Napoleon

Post-Gupta or Contemporary Gupta

  • The deterioration of Imperial Guptas, Magadha and its capital, Pataliputra
  • After the fall of the Guptas, five major centers of power immersed in north India
    • Harshvardana
    • Vakataka
    • Pallavas
    • Chalukyas
  • Also, Hunas, Maitrakas, Rajputs, Senas and Chauhans succeeded later.

Medieval India (AD 700 – AD 1857)
  • The Tripartite struggle was a skirmish for supremacy and control over the central Gangetic valley.
  • Tripartite struggle (AD 800-1200 )- Prathiharas, Palas, and Rashtrakutas
  • In AD 712, Attack of Muhammed Bin Kassim
  • Growth of Islam and Sufism
  • Succeeded by:
    • Mohammed Ghazni (AD 1000-27)
    • Mohammed Ghori (AD 1175-1206)
  • The major South Indian kingdoms during Medieval India are Vijayanagara and Bhamini.

Delhi Sultanate (1206 AD – 1526 AD)

  • Slave Dynasty
  • Khilji Dynasty
  • Tuglaq Dynasty
  • Sayyid Dynasty
  • Lodi Dynasty

Mughals (AD 1526 – AD 1857)

  • Mughals
  • Later Mughals
  • Arrival of Europeans

Modern India (AD 1857-1991)
  • 1857- First War of Indian Independence
  • 1885- Formation of Indian National Congress
  • 1906-Formation of Muslim League
  • 1920-Non Co-operation Movement
  • 1930-Civil Disobedience Movement
  • 1942- Quit India Movement
  • 1947- Partition of India
  • 1946 – 1950 Constitutional Development of India
  • 1962- India- China war
  • 1965-India-Pakistan war
  • 1971- Formation of Bangladesh
  • 1991-New Economic Policy

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