Social Issues in India - Major Classifications

Social issues in India are in plenty and they need to be addressed systematically to achieve social justice and economic justice to all the citizens of India. The founding fathers of India were keen on addressing the social issues of India by framing the constitution accordingly. Information on the major social issue will help the aspirants of IAS Exam.

The topic, ‘Social Issues’ comes under ‘Social Justice’ of GS 2 in the UPSC 2022. Complement your General Studies-II preparation with the help of following links:

  1. Social Justice Questions from UPSC Mains GS 2
  2. Governance Questions for UPSC Mains
  3. UPSC Mains GS 2 Strategy, Syllabus and Structure
  4. Government Schemes
  5. Important Acts in India

Classification of Social Issues

The below table gives the broad classification of major social issues in India

Classification of Major Social Issues Details
Gender Issues 1. Gender Gap

2. Triple Talaq

3. Sexual Harassment at Workplace

Poverty Related Issues 1. Poverty Report
Caste Related Issues 1. Lynchings

2. I&B advisory on the term Dalit

3. Implications of the Caste Census.

Migration 1. Changing Pattern of Migration

2. Plight of migrants

Health 1. Impact of air pollution

2. Campaign against Drugs

3. Substance Abuse in India

Other Issues 1.Increasing Youth Suicides

Gender Issues

The details of 3 major gender issues are given below.

Gender Gap

  1. As per the report of Economic Survey 2017-18, there are 63 million missing women in India.
  2. Missing women are women who are not alive due to foeticide or infanticide.
  3. As per the World Economic Forum, India is ranked very low at 87th position in the “Global Gender Parity Report.”
  4. Indian Government launched the ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ scheme to address the problem of the gender gap.
  5. The government has been carrying out information campaigns to address the problems by bringing in behavioural change in society.

Read about Gender Inequality in India in the linked article.

Triple Talaq

  1. Many Muslim majority countries have banned triple talaq.
  2. To bring equality and justice to women, the Government of India has passed the Triple Talaq Bill, henceforth all declaration of talaq including written and electronic form will be null and void.

Use the information given in the Triple Talaq Essay to substantiate your answers in the Mains exam.

Sexual Harassment at Workplace

  1. The government have passed the Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal) Act in 2013
  2. It aims to protect the rights of women in any workplace in any capacity.

Learn in detail about Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in the linked article.

Poverty Report

  1. As per the World Bank Brookings Institute report, as per May 2018, there are only 73 million people in the poorest of the poor index.
  2. As per the report, 44 people in India are taken out of poverty every minute.
  3. If the growth continues at the same pace, then 50 million people will move out of poverty by 2022.
  4. India is no longer the country with the highest poverty.

Read about Poverty-related topics from the links given below:

Causes of Poverty in India Poverty and Hunger Issues
Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Policies Poverty Estimation in India

Caste Related Issues

The details of caste-related issues are given below.


  1. The majority of the lynchings carried out were due to bovine related issues.
  2. Most of the attacks are based on rumours.
  3. This needs to be stopped to prevent harm caused to the social harmony in society.
  4. The Ministry of Electronics and IT is holding Whatsapp responsible and has advised the platform to take measures to stop the proliferation of fake messages.

Information and Broadcasting Advisory

  1. Information and Broadcasting Ministry has issued an advisory that the word ‘Dalit’ can no longer be used, this is as per the directive of Bombay High Court and Madhya Pradesh High Courts. This is because the word found no mention in the Constitution of India or any statute.
  2. There was another directive from the Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry to use only the term ‘Scheduled Castes’.

Implications of Caste Census

  1. The next caste census will take place in 2021, the problems associated with it is that it will encourage caste-based politics rather than concentrating on developmental activities. Also, there will be strong sentiments for or against reservations.


This is also one of the major social issues in India. The details are given below.

Changing Pattern of Migration

  1. As per recent reports, the number of women migrating in India is increasing at a faster pace than men. Marriage continues to play an important role in the migration of women; however, now other economic factors like employment, business, education is also playing an important role in migration.

Know about Migration from India’s context in the linked article.

Plight of Migrants

  1. There has been an increase in violence against migrants coming to a state from different parts of the country.
  2. Lack of job opportunities to the locals have led to growing resentment against the migrants who are dubbed ‘outsiders’

Learn the challenges of migration that are mentioned in the linked article.


A country’s sustainable progress is dependent on the availability of healthy human resource. With a deteriorating environment and unhealthy lifestyle, health is turning out to be one of the major social issues in India.

Impact of Air Pollution

  1. As per India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative report, India faces 26% of the world’s premature deaths and disease burden due to air pollution.
  2. 1 in 8 deaths in India was attributed to air pollution, which makes it a leading risk factor for death.
  3. Poor air quality is responsible for heart ailments as well.

Campaign against Drugs

  1. The drug menace is extremely severe in Punjab.
  2. Punjab’s prisons are overcrowded with drug users and peddlers.
  3. Punjab set up a Special Task Force to tackle the menace.

Substance Abuse in India

  1. As per a recent report released by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, India has 6 crore alcohol addicts
  2. More than 3 crore Indians are using cannabis products.
  3. 8.5 lakh people in India inject drugs.

Know the relevant facts about Drug Abuse in India from the linked article.

Other Issues

Increasing Youth Suicides

  1. As per reports from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) between 2014 and 2016; 26,476 students committed suicide in India. Of these around 7,500 committed suicide due to failure in various examinations.
  2. The main blame lies with India’s education system.
  3. The education system has not been able to generate enough jobs.

Social Issues in India- UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2022.

IAS Salary Static GK
Best Optional Subjects for UPSC Initiatives under Skill India Mission
Healthy States, Progressive India Report Security Questions from UPSC Mains GS 3
Eligibility Criteria For UPSC

Previous Year Questions of Disaster Management for UPSC

UPSC Exam Pattern UPSC Mains GS-II Strategy, Structure & Syllabus
UPSC Books Green Skill Development Programme
Science & Technology Questions from UPSC Mains GS 3 UPSC Calendar 2022
How to Prepare for Disaster Management for UPSC Daily Video Analysis: The Hindu


Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published.