The cause of hunger is poverty. It is a global social issue. It is a topic covered in UPSC Syllabus. ‘Issues relating to Poverty & Hunger’ is a title under IAS Exam GS-II syllabus. As an aspirant to India’s coveted exam of UPSC, you should know that India’s poverty and hunger issues have always been debated.
This article will provide you with the background to these issues.
Introduction to Poverty & Hunger
As per the Asian Development Bank‘s figures:
- In India, 21.9% of the population lives below the national poverty line in 2011
- In India, the proportion of the employed population below $1.90 purchasing power parity a day in 2011 is 21.2%
- For every 1,000 babies born in India in 2017, 39 die before their 5th birthday
To read more on Introduction to poverty and hunger, check the linked article.
Who are the poor?
Anybody earning less than $1.90 per day on a purchasing power parity basis in India is considered poor. The characteristics of the poverty-ridden people are:
- The major percentage of poor people reside in rural areas of India
- The family size is comparatively larger
- The main occupation is agriculture
- They lack resources to grow
- Low-Income group
To read more on ‘Who are the poor?‘, refer to the linked article.
How are the poor people identified?
In India, Niti Ayog carries poverty estimation. It estimates the levels of poverty in the country on the basis of consumer expenditure surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
Read more on How Are Poor People Identified? in the linked article.
What causes poverty?
The following can be some of the reasons to cause poverty in India
- Population Rise
- Low Productivity in Agriculture
- Under-Utilized Resources
- Low Rate of Economic Development
- Price Rise
- Shortage of Capital and Able Entrepreneurship
- Social Factors
Read more on What Causes Poverty? in the referred link.
Aspirants preparing for UPSC 2020 should also go through the below-mentioned links on issues related to poverty and hunger:
UPSC Preparation Links: