UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Healthy States, Progressive India Report
Healthy States, Progressive India Report is a comprehensive Health report released by the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog). It is an annual report which would rank States and Union Territories on incremental changes in health outcomes and overall performance with respect to the others. It has been developed by NITI Aayog in consultation with Technical Assistance Agency of World Bank, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), States and Union Territories, domestic and international sector experts and other development partners.
It aims at promoting a cooperative and competitive spirit among States and UTs in order to rapidly bring about transformative action in achieving the desired health outcomes.
The Health Index is based on three main domains that lays its focus on health outcomes, governance and information, and critical inputs–
10 indicators weighing 70% of the total index score has been given the highest importance. Key indicators under this domain are Neonatal Mortality, Under Five Mortality Rate, Total Fertility Rate, and Sex Ratio at Birth etc.
The objective of the index
- To develop a composite health index based on key health outcomes, health system and service delivery indicators.
- To ensure State and UTs partnership and ownership through Health Index data submission on web-based portals.
- Build transparency through independent validation by independent agencies.
- Generate Health Index scores and ranking of States and UTs based on year to year overall performance.
Governance and Information
3 indicators which weigh 12% are Data integrity measure, the average occupancy of an officer (signifying stability in the organization) and average occupancy of a full-time officer for all districts. Key Inputs and Processes – 10 indicators weighing 18% are the proportion of vacant healthcare, the proportion of total staff for which an e-payslip can be generated etc.
- The states have been categorised based on the availability of data and the fact that similar states should be compared amongst themselves. Therefore the states have been categorised as larger states, smaller States and UTs.
- Based on the above categories the states are grouped into three categories – Aspirants (bottom one-third states with a score below 48), Achievers (middle one third state with a score between 48 and 63) and Frontrunners with scores above 63.
- The composite score of the index is calculated for a base year i.e. 2014-15 and a reference year i.e. 2016-16. The incremental ranks are a measure of the difference in performance between these two periods
- The data sources for the index are Sample Registration System, Health Management Information System, Central MoHFW data, State Report, National Family Health Survey, Civil Registration System etc
The health index is a welcome step towards encouraging health care initiatives. · However in order to improve the process further, the data system in health needs to be improved to ensure timeliness, consistency, accuracy and relevance. The Data from new thrust areas and new sources should be included for more comprehensive coverage such as private sector data.