Tipu Sultan - An Overview of the Ruler of Mysore Kingdom

Tipu Sultan was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was born on 1st December 1751, in Devanahalli, located in present-day Bangalore, Karnataka. Tipu Sultan succeeded his father Hyder Ali as the Ruler of Mysore in December 1782.

This article will provide information about a significant freedom fighter – Tipu Sultan in the context of the IAS Exam.

This article is useful for the History part (GS I) of the UPSC Syllabus.

The candidates can read more relevant information from the links provided below:

Tipu Sultan – Important Developments in Mysore Kingdom

  • Mysore silk industry started growing due to the introduction of a new land revenue system.
  • Administrative innovations were introduced during his rule.
  • Calendar and a new coinage system were introduced.
  • Fathul Mujahidin, a military manual, was commissioned during the rule of Tipu Sultan.
  • Military weapon named Mysorean Rockets was successfully used against the British East India Company during the 1780s and 1790s. This technology came into the hands of the British which later on resulted in the development of Congreve rockets.

Tipu Sultan – Wars and Battles

Tipu Sultan fought many battles and wars against the British East India Company, Marathas, rulers of Travancore, Carnatic, Malabar, Bednore, Kodagu.

  • Tipu fought against the Marathas between 1775 and 1779.
  • Tipu had signed a Peace treaty with the British in 1784.
  • The British attacked Tipu Sultan, when the ruler of Travancore was attacked by the army of Tipu Sultan. The ruler of Travancore was the ally of the British.
  • In 1792, Tipu signed the Treaty of Seringapatam (now known as Srirangapatna) and he lost half of his dominion to the British.
  • Battle of Pollilur or Battle of Perambakam, took place on 10 September 1780 at Pollilur near Conjeevaram, the city of Kanchipuram in present-day Tamil Nadu state, India, as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
  • Tipu defeated Lt. Colonel William Baillie of the British East India Company in the Battle of Pollilur.

Anglo Mysore Wars

In the last three decades of the 18th century, a series of wars were fought between the Kingdom of Mysore under the rule of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan on one side and the British East India Company, Nizam of Hyderabad, Maratha Empire on the other side.

First Anglo Mysore War

  • The first Anglo Mysore war was fought between the Kingdom of Mysore (under Hyder Ali) and the British East India Company, which also had the assistance of the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • First Anglo Mysore War was fought from 1767 to 1769.
  • First Anglo Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Madras.

Second Anglo Mysore War

  • The Second Anglo Mysore War was fought from 1780 to 1784.
  • At the Battle of Porto Novo, Hyder Ali was defeated by British Commander Sir Eyre Coote. This war was part of the Second Anglo Mysore War.
  • The Second Anglo Mysore War came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Mangalore on 11th March 1784.

Third Anglo-Mysore War

  • The Third Anglo Mysore War was fought from 1790 to 1792.
  • This war started when the ally of the British, the ruler of Travancore, was attacked by Tipu Sultan.
  • This war ended with the Treaty of Seringapatam (now Shrirangapattana) in 1792. Tipu was defeated.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War

  • The Kingdom of Mysore was attacked from four different sides.
  • Northern part of Mysore saw the invasion of the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • The final battle, the Siege of Seringapatam, resulted in the complete defeat of Mysore Kingdom.
  • Tipu Sultan died in the war.
  • The Mysore kingdom was restored to the Wodeyar Dynasty by a way of the subsidiary alliance.

The candidates can read more about the wars in detail from the below links:

  1. First Anglo Mysore War & Second Anglo Mysore War (NCERT Notes for UPSC)
  2. NCERT Notes: Third And Fourth Anglo-Mysore Wars [Modern Indian History For UPSC]

Death of Tipu Sultan

  • Tipu Sultan died on 4th May 1799, in Srirangapatna, located in the present-day Mandya district of Karnataka.
  • He was defeated in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. This war was fought from 1798 to 1799.

Subsidiary Alliance

  • After Tipu Sultan was defeated by the British, the Mysore Kingdom was handed over to the Wodeyar Dynasty, but they were forced to get into the Subsidiary Alliance with the British.
  • Lord Wellesley devised the Subsidiary Alliance in 1798.
  • As per the Subsidiary Alliance, the ally would be protected from the internal and external threats by the British.
  • The Kingdom, which gets into the Subsidiary Alliance with the British, has to station the British Army within their Kingdom.
  • The Indian rulers had to pay for the British Army. If there was a failure in making payments, then part of their territory will be taken over by the British.
  • The ruler of Hyderabad, Nawab of Awadh also lost their territories to the British due to their failure to make payments, as per Subsidiary Alliance.
  • The Indian ally could not enter into any sort of warfare or agreement without the permission of the British.

To read more about Subsidiary Alliance, its features and effects, check the linked article.

Tipu Sultan [UPSC Notes]:-Download PDF Here

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