Bal Gangadhar Tilak was one of the most important leaders of the Indian Independence Movement. He is also known as ‘Father of Indian Unrest.’ This article shares details on the life history of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, his contributions in making India a free country and other related facts.
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Bal Gangadhar Tilak [1856-1920] (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here
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Who was Bal Gangadhar Tilak?
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, commonly known as Lokamanya Tilak was a leader of the Indian independence movement and belonged to the extremist faction. He was also called the ‘Father of Indian Unrest’.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s Personal Life
- Born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak in 1856 in Ratnagiri, modern-day Maharashtra.
- Born into a middle-class Hindu family; got a bachelor’s degree from Pune.
- Initially worked as a Maths teacher. Later started working as a journalist and joined the freedom movement.
- He was one of the founders of the Fergusson College in Pune.
- He died in 1920 aged 64.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s Political Life
- Tilak joined the Congress in 1890.
- He was opposed to moderate ways and views and had a more radical and aggressive stance against British rule.
- He was one of the first advocates of Swaraj or self-rule. He gave the slogan, “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.” He believed that no progress was possible without self-rule.
- He was part of the extremist faction of the INC and was a proponent of boycott and Swadeshi movements.
- He published two papers – Kesari in Marathi and Mahratta in English. He was fearless in his criticism of the government in these papers.
- He was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment on charges of “incitement to murder”. He had written that killers of oppressors could not be blamed, quoting the Bhagavad Gita. After this, two British officials were killed by two Indians in retaliation to the ‘tyrannical’ measures taken by the government during the bubonic plague episode in Bombay.
- Along with Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, he was called the ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ trio of extremist leaders.
- He was tried for sedition several times. He spent 6 years in Mandalay prison from 1908 to 1914 for writing articles defending Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose. They were revolutionaries who had killed two English women, throwing bomb into the carriage carrying the women. Chaki and Bose had mistakenly assumed that Magistrate Douglas Kingsford was in it.
- Tilak re-joined the INC in 1916, after having split earlier.
- He was one of the founders of the All India Home Rule League, along with Annie Besant and G S Khaparde.
- For his political ideals, Tilak drew heavily from the ancient Hindu scriptures.
- He called for people to be proud of their heritage. He was against the blatant westernisation of society.
- He transformed the simple Ganesh Puja performed at home into a social and public Ganesh festival.
- He used the Ganesh Chaturthi and Shiv Jayanti (birth anniversary of Shivaji) festivals to create unity and a national spirit among the people. Unfortunately, this move alienated non-Hindus from him.
- The Sarvajanik Ganeshotsav as popularised by him since 1894 is still one of the biggest festivals of Maharashtra.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s Social Views
- Despite being a nationalist radical leader, Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s social views were conservative.
- He was against Hindu women getting modern education.
- He was opposed to the age of consent bill initially in which the age of marriage of girls was proposed to be raised from 10 to 12. Even though he was okay with this raising of age, he saw this act as interference in the social and religious life of Indians by the British.
Books Written By Bal Gangadhar Tilak
The two important books are written by Tilak:
- Gita Rahasya
- Arctic Home of the Vedas
Gist of Facts Related to Lokamanya Tilak
- Tilak received A Law degree from Government’s Law College, Bombay (now Mumbai) in the year 1879.
- Tilak founded two newspapers ‘Kesari’ in Marathi and ‘Mahratta’ in English. Both the newspapers actively propagated the cause of national freedom and stressed on making the Indians aware to be self-reliant.
- Tilak strongly criticized the education system followed in India by the British, therefore, he started the Deccan Educational Society with Gopal Ganesh Agarkar and Vishnu Shastry Chiplunkar for the purpose of inspiring nationalist education among Indian students.
- Tilak started the Swadeshi movement in India and to promote it, Tilak with Jamshedji Tata established Bombay Swadeshi Stores.
- He also started two important festivals (now the prime festival in Maharashtra and adjacent states). Shivaji Jayanti in 1895 and Ganesha festival in 1893. Ganesha festival because Lord Ganesha was worshipped by all Hindus and Shivaji because he was the first Hindu ruler who fought against Muslim power in India and established the Maratha Empire in the 17th century.
- Tilak with Annie Besant, Joseph Baptista, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah founded the All India Home Rule League in 1916. In the same year, he concluded the Lucknow Pact with Jinnah, which provided for Hindu-Muslim unity in the nationalist struggle.
- His Publication includes The Arctic Home in the Vedas (1903) which represent the origin of Aryans and Srimad Bhagvat Gita Rahasya (1915)
- The Government of India released a coin to commemorate Tilak’s 150th birth anniversary in 2007. Not just that, Om Raut directed the film Lokmanya: Ek Yug Purush which was released on 2 January 2015.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak [1856-1920] (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here
Candidates can also follow NCERT Notes: Nana Saheb/Sahib in the linked article.
|NCERT Notes – Indian Nationalism- Moderates||NCERT Notes – Indian Nationalism – Extremists|
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The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2022.
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