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28 Nov 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 28 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
GOVERNANCE
1. Same-sex marriage
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
SOCIETY
1. It’s time to discuss depopulation
INDIAN POLITY
1. Shifts unexplained
F. Prelims Facts
1. Bluebugging
2. Republic Day Celebrations
G. Tidbits
1. Austra Hind 22
2. Khalanga Mela
3. UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Category: INDIAN POLITY

1. Shifts unexplained

Syllabus: Indian Judiciary.

Mains: Transfer of High Court Judges.

Prelims: Collegium system.

Context: Recent rounds of transfer of High Court Judges.

Background Details: 

  • A recent round of transfers of High Court Judges (3 from Telangana and 2 each from Madras and Andhra Pradesh) has once again brought the controversial issue of the opaque functioning of the collegium system to the fore.
  • The controversy flared up due to two factions proposing different views on the transfer of a Gujarat High Court Judge. The perception is that the Collegium heeds the demand made by one set of lawyers, but ignores that of another group.
  • For the exchange of talent across the country and the prevention of local cliques in the judiciary, the transfer of judges is required. But the transfers have always been seen as a potential threat to judicial independence.
  • According to the Memorandum of Procedure, a judge’s consent is not required to effect a transfer.
  • As per the current norms, all transfers should be in the public interest, that is, for better administration of justice throughout the country. The norms also state that the personal factors of the judge like his/her preference of places should also be considered.
  • The reason for shifting a puisne judge without being made a Chief Justice is rarely explained. It sets off speculation that the reasons are either allegations against the judge or unease among the government due to his/her judicial order.
  • It is well known that the transfers should not be used as a punitive measure.

For more information on High Courts, read here: High Court Of India – History, Jurisdiction, Constitution & Salary (UPSC Indian Polity Notes)

Related Link: Supreme Court Judge – Appointment and Removal – UPSC Indian Polity

Nut Graf: The transfer of judges has once again brought to the limelight the concerns associated with the functioning of the collegium system. A complete review of the provisions for the transfer of High Court judges is the need of the hour to maintain both the trust and independence of the judiciary. 

F. Prelims Facts

1. Bluebugging

Syllabus: GS03-Science and Technology

Prelims: Cyber Attacks

What is bluebugging?

  • It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection. 
  • Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts.
  • Bluebugging attacks work by exploiting Bluetooth-enabled devices. 
  • Once a connection is established, hackers can use brute force attacks to bypass authentication. They can install malware in the compromised device to gain unauthorised access to it.  
    • Once hacked, the attacker can make and listen to calls, read and send messages, and modify or steal your contacts.
  • Any Bluetooth-enabled device including wireless earbuds are susceptible to such hacks.
  • Bluebugging can happen whenever a Bluetooth enabled device is within a 10-metre radius of the hacker. Hackers can also use booster antennas to widen the attack range.
  • Apps that enable users to connect to their TWS (True Wireless Stereo) devices or earbuds can record conversations. 

How can one prevent bluebugging?

  • Turning off Bluetooth and disconnecting paired Bluetooth devices when not in use,
  • Updating the device’s system software to the latest version, 
  • Limited use of public Wi-Fi and 
  • Using VPN as an additional security measure.
  • Monitor data usage for sudden spikes.

Read more on Cyber Security

2. Republic Day Celebrations

Syllabus: Current events of national and international importance.

Prelims: Republic Day Guests

Key Details

  • According to the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), Egyptian President Abdel Fateh el-Sisi will be the chief guest at the Republic Day celebrations in January 2023.
  • This is the first time that the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt will be the Chief Guest at Republic Day. 
  • Republic Day is celebrated every year on 26th January to commemorate the adoption of the Indian Constitution, which came into effect on this day in 1950.
  • On 26 January 1950, Indonesian President Sukarno was the first Chief guest on the very first Republic Day parade of India.
Republic day guest

Image Source: The Hindu

India and Egypt

  • India and Egypt share close political understanding based on a long history of contacts and cooperation in bilateral, regional, and global issues.
  • The year 2022 is of particular significance since it marks the 75th anniversary of diplomatic relations between India and Egypt.
  • Egypt and India were founding members of the movement for non-alignment and Egyptian leaders have traditionally maintained cordial ties with New Delhi. 
  • Mr. Sisi attended the India Africa Forum Summit along with other heads of states and governments of Africa from October 26 to 29 in 2015.
  • In July 2022, Egypt signed a Memorandum of Understanding with India’s ReNew Power for $8 billion to build a clean hydrogen facility in the Suez Canal Economic Zone.

Read more on India-Egypt Relations

G. Tidbits

1. Austra Hind 22

  • The joint military exercise between armies of Australia  and India ‘Austra Hind-22’ recently began at Rajasthan’s Mahajan Field Firing Ranges, with a focus on peacekeeping operations under the UN mandate. 
  • The exercise aims to build positive military ties, imbibe each other’s best practices and promote the ability to operate together.
  • It is the first exercise under ‘Austra Hind’ with the participation of all arms and services contingent from armies of both nations. 
  • It will be a yearly event conducted alternatively in India and Australia.
  • The joint exercise, besides promoting understanding and interoperability between the two armies, will further help in strengthening ties between India and Australia.

Read more on Joint Military Exercises of Indian Army

2. Khalanga Mela

  • Gorkhas recently celebrated the annual ‘Khalanga mela’ in Dehradun recently. 
  • The fair is organised every year in remembrance of the Gorkha warriors who fought bravely against the British in the battle of Nalapani on the outskirts of in 1814. 
  • In this battle, the British 3rd Infantry division comprising 3,500 soldiers with heavy artillery under the command of Major General Robert Gillespie faced stiff resistance from Gorkha general Balbhadra Singh Thapa and his band of 600 soldiers who defended the Khalanga fort for over six weeks without food or water.

3. UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya was conferred with the ‘Award of Excellence’ at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation-2022 recently.
  • The museum is a part of the Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai’s world heritage property. 
  • It was established as the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India in 1922. 
  • Of the 13 projects from six countries – Afghanistan, China, India, Iran, Nepal and Thailand – four from India were awarded
    • Award of Excellence – Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya
    • Award of Distinction – Stepwells of Golconda, Hyderabad
    • Award of Merit – Domakonda Fort, Telangana, and Byculla Station, Mumbai

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

1. The popular ‘Khalanga Mela’ is held annually at - (Level-Moderate)
  1. Gangtok
  2. Imphal
  3. Dehradun
  4. Aizawl
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: 

  • The annual Khalanga Mela is held with great enthusiasm at the Khalanga War Memorial in Dehradun.
  • The fair is organised every year in remembrance of the Gorkha warriors who fought bravely against the British in the battle of Nalapani on the outskirts of in 1814. 
  • It has been described as the only monument in the history of warfare to have been erected by a victorious army for its adversaries, as the British were reportedly impressed with the valour of the Gorkhas.
2. Which of the following statements are correct? (Level-Easy)
  1. The China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA) is a foreign aid agency of the People’s Republic of China.
  2. It recently hosted the ‘China-Indian Ocean Region Forum’ with 19 countries from the region including India.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, The China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA); is a foreign aid agency of the People’s Republic of China. 
    • It is directly subordinate to the State Council. It was created to “achieve better coordination and greater impact” of China’s aid programs, particularly in support of the Belt and Road Initiative.
  • Statement 02 is incorrect,  It recently hosted the ‘China-Indian Ocean Region Forum’ with representatives from 19 countries in the region, except for India.
3. The construction of Rooppur nuclear power plant in Bangladesh is being led by - 
(Level-Easy)
  1. Russia and Ukraine
  2. Russia and China
  3. Russia and India
  4. Russia and Pakistan
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: 

  • The Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant  is being constructed at Rooppur, on the bank of the river Padma, in Bangladesh. It will be the country’s first nuclear power plant, and the first of the two unit is expected to go into operation in 2024.
  • IN 2018, India, Bangladesh and Russia signed a tripartite memorandum of understanding (MoU) for cooperation in the construction of the Rooppur nuclear power plant in Bangladesh.
4. Which of the following is a joint military exercise between India & Malaysia? 
(Level-Moderate)
  1. Mitra Shakti
  2. Harimau Shakti
  3. Surya Kiran
  4. Garuda Shakti
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation: 

  • India – Malaysia joint military Exercise “Harimau Shakti -2022” commenced at Pulai, Kluang, Malaysia recently.
  • Exercise HARIMAU SHAKTI is an annual training event between the Indian and Malaysian Army which has been conducted since 2012.
  • “Exercise HARIMAU SHAKTI” will enhance the level of defence co-operation between Indian Army and the Malaysian Army, which in turn will further foster the bilateral relations between the two nations.
5. Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T 
cells in the human body?(CSE-PYQ-2022) (Level-Easy)
  1. They protect the body from environmental allergens.
  2. They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
  3. They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
  4. They protect the body from diseases caused by pathogens.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • B cells and T cells are the white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for adaptive immune response in an organism. They protect the body from diseases caused by pathogens.

Read more on Difference between T cells and B cells

CNA 28 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here

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