CNA 30 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related POLITY 1. Doubling court strength won’t end pendency: SC C. GS 3 Related D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials INDIAN POLITY 1. Settling the language for cooperative federalism POLITY AND GOVERNANCE 1. EWS are well represented in higher education ENVIRONMENT 1. Where does waste originate and go? F. Prelims Facts G. Tidbits 1. UNDP to help waste segregation workers access govt. schemes 2. Yudh Abhyas among five other bilateral Army drills on H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
Syllabus: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary
Mains: The problems of judicial pendency and other challenges impacting the functioning of the judiciary.
The Supreme Court (SC) has said that increasing the number of judges in the country would not help address the problem of judicial pendency in India.
Supreme Court’s views on judicial pendency
- The SC bench while hearing a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) which sought to double the number of judges in the High Courts and the district courts noted that the courts are already facing difficulty in finding good lawyers to fill up the existing judicial positions.
- The petitioner pointed out that about 10 crore cases are currently pending in the district courts and said that the judge-population ratio in developed countries was around 50 for every million.
- However, the Chief Justice of India (CJI) Justice D.Y. Chandrachud held that such petitions would not be entertained even by the apex courts of the U.S. or the U.K. as such issues are a reality of our judicial system. He further opined that we have widened the access to the SC to a point that is becoming dysfunctional.
- The CJI further added that the judiciary was “overburdened because of the system and if we apply the brakes, we will be absolutely clear of arrears.”
- Recently, Justice Sanjay Kishan Kaul who is the second senior-most judge in SC had also raised concerns about the availability of good legal talent to join the Bench and pointed out that about 20% of the judicial posts were vacant in High Courts.
- Justice Kaul further said that the Chief Justices of several High Courts had complained about the unwillingness of lawyers to accept invitations to the Bench because of the uncertainty caused due to the government’s inaction.
- Justice Kaul also criticised the government for holding up Collegium recommendations for months together causing delays.
- Justice P.S. Narasimha who is an Associate Judge on the CJI Bench also opined that increasing the number of judges would not be a solution to the pendency.
For more details about judicial pendencies in India refer to the following link:
Nut graf: Judicial pendency has been a perennial problem in India and the Supreme Court believes that increasing the number of judges in the courts is a simplistic solution to a complex issue of arrears. More collaborative steps involving the judiciary, the executive and the legislature are the need of the hour to ensure a stable, effective, and faster justice delivery mechanism.
C. GS 3 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Syllabus: Federal structure and the official language.
Mains: Imposition and spread of the Hindi language.
Prelims: Constitutional provisions associated with the official and national language.
Context: Press conference of the Parliamentary committee of official language.
- India has remained distinctively unified in spite of the multiplicity of its cultures. To impose Hindi at this point in time has once again raised the issue of ‘cultural nationalism’ when it is least required.
- Language is a crucial element of an individual’s identity. The issue of expressing national identity in a linguistically diverse society that wanted to reduce the use of English (as it was a symbol of colonial power) was highly contested in the Constituent Assembly and associated with ‘national prestige’.
- The debate about the Official Language brought forth ‘dissents’ while drafting the Constitution. It covered the language of legislatures, courts and the judiciary, and the official work of the Union.
For more information on the Official Language Resolution, read here: Official Language Resolution
- According to Article 345, a state can choose its language for official purposes. However, in reality, several States/Union Territories continue to use English.
- Article 348 of the Constitution specifies that all proceedings of the Supreme Court and ‘of every High Court’ and of Bills, etc. in Parliament shall be in the English language.
- The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act of 1963, and its Rules made in 1976 (amendments in 1987, 2007, 2011) clearly bring out the diversity and complexity of the language landscape of India.
- Article 351 directs the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language and develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India.
- Parliamentary Committee on Official language:
- The committee (consisting of 30 members) is headed by the Home Minister.
- Its objective is to review the progress made in the use of Hindi for official purposes and to make recommendations to increase the use of Hindi in official communications.
- The report of the committee is submitted to the President of India, who forwards its recommendations to the two Houses.
Controversies associated with the imposition of the Hindi Language:
- Dissent has surfaced time and again beginning with the B.G. Kher Commission, which assumed a violent form in Tamil Nadu in 1965, resulting in over 50 deaths.
- In the recent past (November 2022), it was reported by a newspaper that an 85-year-old DMK functionary ended his life in Salem because of the Central government’s imposition of Hindi in Tamil Nadu.
- It is observed that the recommendations of up to the ninth report (in 2010) have been forwarded to the Houses of Parliament. The 10th and 11th reports though submitted to the President are not in the public domain.
- Press conference of the Home Minister in October 2022:
- The completion of the 11th Report was announced by the Home Minister at the conference.
- He further highlighted some of its recommendations on the language of instruction and examinations in technical courses. This resulted in a debate on its practicality, implications, availability of standard books, and ability of teachers to communicate adequately.
- Another associated concern was the competence of candidates undertaking examinations in it and competing with those having Hindi as a mother tongue.
- At the root of these debates is the bigger aspect of identity in a diverse society. It should be noted that it is nowhere suggested that diversity (including linguistic diversity) should be subsumed in linguistic uniformity.
For more information about parliamentary committee recommendations, read here: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis. Oct 18th, 2022.
The issue of ‘National Language’:
- It should be recalled that the language of the chapter on Official Language is definitive and restricts itself to the language of the Union. It does not mention a national language. Moreover, it is also not mentioned in the Directive Principles of State Policy or Fundamental Duties.
- Article 344(3) clearly stipulates that ‘the just claims and interests of persons belonging to the non-Hindi speaking areas in regard to the public services’ shall be considered by the President.
- According to the author, the allegation of ‘cultural chauvinism’ emerges from the apprehension of the transition from English and Hindi as the Official Language of the Union to it being the national language and to bring it through some procedural devices like the language of instruction, examination, textbooks and its implications for competitiveness in the job market.
- The constitutional course open for the federal government in this context would be to opt for the language of Article 345, which allows each Legislature to use Hindi, or choose its language, for all official purposes. However, this would be based on the electoral success of the party in power.
Nut Graf: The issue of imposition of the Hindi language emerges time and again and creates apprehensions, particularly in the non-Hindi-speaking states. The author of the article has suggested that the states adopt the language of Article 345 which makes it prudent for longer-term political harmony implying cooperative federalism.
Syllabus: Welfare schemes for the vulnerable section of the population.
Mains: Economically Weaker Section (EWS) quota.
Context: Supreme Court upheld the validity of the EWS quota.
- According to the Constitution (124th Amendment) Bill, the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) from the general category has largely remained excluded in higher education institutions due to their financial incapacity. Thus, exclusion or under-representation in higher education is the principal justification for the EWS quota.
- The authors of the article have examined whether this justification about the EWS quota is backed by evidence or not.
For more information on the SC verdict, read here: Sansad TV Perspective: EWS Quota
- A database of higher education institutions that were ranked under the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) was developed. The EWS students in 457 higher education institutions in 2019 (before the EWS quota was introduced) were compared with 528 institutions ranked in 2022 (the latest year).
- Though the NIRF data does not provide the proportion of EWS students directly, details of the number of ‘economically backward students’ defined as “students whose parental income is less than taxable slab” was considered. The socially backward category was excluded from it.
- The Ajay Bhushan Pandey Committee has been appointed to examine the EWS income criteria.
- The committee is of the view that the present effective income tax exemption limit is around ₹8 lakh for individuals, so the gross annual income limit of ₹8 lakh for the entire family should be considered reasonable for inclusion into the EWS quota.
- Findings of the analysis:
|NIRF Institution||EWS share in 2019||Socially Backward Group (SC/ST/OBC) share in 2019||EWS share in 2022||Socially Backward Group (SC/ST/OBC) share in 2022|
|NIRF-ranked higher education institutions||19%||39%||15%||-*|
|Public higher education institutions (218 in total)||19%||-*||17%||-*|
|Private institutions (239 in total)||20%||36%||13%||36%|
|Centrally funded institutions like IITs and IIMs (within Public institutions)||21%||-*||16%||-*|
*data not provided
- Other findings:
- A Periodic Labour Force Survey analysis data of the year 2019 also confirms that EWS is neither excluded nor under-represented.
- According to insight by the Palma ratio, a policy-relevant inequality measure, households were categorized as the Bottom 40% (the poor), Middle 50% (middle class), and Top 10% (the rich). Out of the Bottom 40%
- The proportion of the general category (non-SC/ST/OBCs) is 18%. And out of these:
- Around 20% of 18-25-year-olds have enrolled in higher education institutions.
- And 20% of 22 to 29 years olds have completed their graduation (or above).
- The proportion of the general category (non-SC/ST/OBCs) is 18%. And out of these:
Nut Graf: The justification and the objective of the EWS reservation policy is the under-representation and exclusion of the economically backward community from Higher Education Institutions. However, the authors of the article undertook research that showed that the representation of this group was well above the 10% quota.
Syllabus: Solid waste management.
Mains: Analysis of the source and destination of waste.
Prelims: Envistats India 2022.
Context: ‘EnviStats India 2022’ report published by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
- The report titled ‘EnviStats India 2022’ has highlighted the arduous task of disposing of the solid waste generated by the States without degrading and depleting the environment.
- The report has taken the example of Delhi to capture and calculate the source and destination of all types of solid waste. Data was collected from all 5 Urban Local Bodies and the Delhi Pollution Control Committee pertaining to 2020-21.
- The following figure shows various sources (along with their share) of solid waste generated in Delhi.
Figure 1: Sources of solid waste generated in the year 2020-21
- Findings of the report:
- Approximately 85% of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Delhi was generated by households and nearly 15% by shops and restaurants. It should be noted that MSW includes garbage (highly decomposable material like food), trash (bulky items like tree branches, old appliances), and rubbish (slowly decomposing products like paper, metal, glass, etc.).
- Moreover, approximately 3200 tonnes of hazardous waste was also generated in Delhi. Hazardous waste includes sludge from factories, waste from industrial manufacturing processes and batteries.
- Half of the solid waste was dumped into landfills, whereas the other half was recycled and reused. The detail about the waste disposal is given in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Ways in which waste was disposed of in Delhi in 2020-21
- It was highlighted that there is no treatment and disposal facility for e-waste in Delhi. However, the report suggests that out of the 610 tonnes of e-waste generated in 2020-21, refurbishers collected 28.6 tonnes and bulk consumers collected the rest.
- Furthermore, nearly 22% of plastic waste was converted into energy, whereas 37% was taken to landfills.
Details about other states of India:
- As the data for 2020-21 is not available for other states, the assessment is done on the basis of figures from 2019-20.
- Approximately 68% of the MSW generated is processed in India.
- The top performer is Himachal Pradesh which is processing 98% of MSW generated. It is followed by Chhattisgarh at 93%.
- On the other hand, West Bengal processed only 9%.
- An average of 2.5 tonnes of plastic was generated per 1,000 population in India in the year 2018-19.
- Around 87% of biomedical waste was treated across the country. It is observed that 17 States and 5 Union Territories have already achieved 100% bio-medical waste treatment. In contrast, in Bihar and Chhattisgarh, a mere 29% of the bio-medical waste was treated.
- Approximately 614 tonnes of biomedical waste was generated per day in India in 2018.
- Only 45% of the hazardous waste generated in India was recycled/utilized. The majority of states lag in this indicator. Out of the 30 States analyzed, less than 50% was recycled/utilized in 13 states; and in 22, less than 75% was recycled/utilized.
- The hazardous waste generated in India (in 2018) was 8.09 metric tonnes per 1,000 population.
Nut Graf: The data reveals that there are multiple sources of waste generation in India, particularly in Delhi. However, the treatment, processing, and recycling of waste are still dismal. The need of the hour is better disposal of the waste generated from multiple sources.
F. Prelims Facts
Nothing here today!!!
- By helping the workers in the waste segregation industry in India to access government welfare programmes, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is trying to help the workers in the industry to move towards the formal economy.
- Under this initiative, the United Nations Under-Secretary-General would be distributing the “Jan Dhan” account kits to waste segregation workers.
- The opening of the accounts for the workers has been done through the UNDP’s plastic waste management programme.
- UNDP’s plastic waste management programme facilitates the collection, segregation, and recycling of all plastics in a bid to shift towards a circular economy.
- The programme also aims to ensure the well-being and financial inclusion of the Safai Sathis (waste-pickers), by linking them to various social protection schemes.
- As per UNDP, the main objective of the programme is to help move the sector from informal to formal. In line with the objective, UNDP is undertaking various steps to link the workers to social protection schemes like that of Jan Dhan accounts, Aadhaar cards, Ayushman Bharat, and pension schemes, among others.
- The Indian Army is currently engaging in bilateral exercises with five countries both within and outside the country.
- The 18th edition of “Yudh Abhyas” which is an India-U.S. Army exercise is being organised at Auli in Uttarakhand, about 100 km from the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
- Additionally, other exercises namely:
- Ex Austra Hind with Australia is being conducted at Mahajan field firing ranges in Rajasthan
- Ex Agni Warrior with Singapore is being organised at Deolali in Maharashtra
- Ex Harimau Shakti with Malaysia is being conducted at Pulai, Kluang, Malaysia
- Ex Garuda Shakti with Indonesia is being conducted at Sangga Buana Training Area in Karawang, Indonesia
- Ex KazInd with Kazakhstan is scheduled to take place in mid-December
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. Consider the following statements with regard to Kuki – Chin tribal community: (Level – Difficult)
- The term Chin is used for the people in the neighbouring Chin state of Myanmar whereas Chins are called Kukis on the Indian side.
- Following ethnic clashes between the Nagas and Kukis in the early 1990s, a number of Kuki outfits like the Kuki National Front were formed to counter Naga hegemony and assertion.
- The Kuki-Chin National Army aims to create a separate state in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Southern Bangladesh.
Choose the correct code:
- One statement is correct
- Two statements are correct
- All statements are correct
- None of them
- Statement 1 is correct, The term Chin is used for the people in the neighbouring Chin state of Myanmar whereas Chins are called Kukis on the Indian side.
- Statement 2 is correct, Following ethnic clashes between the Nagas and Kukis in the early 1990s, a number of Kuki outfits like the Kuki National Front were formed to counter Naga hegemony and assertion.
- Statement 3 is correct, The Kuki-Chin National Army aims to create a separate state in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Southern Bangladesh.
Q2. Consider the following statements with regard to in-camera court proceedings in India: (Level – Difficult)
- Section 327 of the Code of Criminal Procedure has detailed the types of cases that should be recorded on camera, including inquiries into and trials in rape cases.
- As per this section, if the presiding judge or a magistrate thinks fit, she can order at any stage of the proceedings that the public generally, or any particular person, shall not remain present in the courtroom or the court building.
- In-camera proceedings are usually conducted at family courts in cases of matrimonial disputes, including judicial separation, divorce proceedings, impotence, and more.
Choose the correct code:
- 1 & 3 only
- 2 & 3 only
- 1 only
- All of the above
- Statement 1 is correct, Section 327 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) has detailed the types of cases that should be recorded on camera, including inquiries into and trials in rape cases.
- Statement 2 is correct, According to Section 327 of the CrPC, if the presiding judge or a magistrate thinks fit, she can order at any stage of the proceedings that the public generally, or any particular person, shall not remain present in the courtroom or the court building.
- Statement 3 is correct, In-camera proceedings are usually conducted at family courts in cases of matrimonial disputes, including judicial separation, divorce proceedings, impotence, and more.
- In-camera proceedings are also conducted during the deposition of witnesses of terrorist activities as per the court’s discretion, so as to protect them and maintain national security.
Q3. Which of the following best defines ‘wet leasing an aircraft’? (Level – Medium)
- Renting the plane along with the operating crew and engineers
- Renting only the aircraft
- Renting any ‘without label’
- Renting the aircraft for medical purposes
- Wet leasing refers to renting the plane along with the operating crew and engineers.
- Dry leasing refers to taking only the aircraft on rent.
Q4. Which of the following statements is not true about RBI’s e-rupee? (Level – Easy)
- E-rupee would be issued in the same denominations that paper currency and coins are currently issued.
- Users will be able to transact with e-Rupee through a digital wallet offered by the participating banks and stored on mobile phones and devices.
- Transactions can be only person to merchant (P2M).
- RBI has demarcated the digital rupee into two broad categories — retail and wholesale.
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) would be releasing the central bank digital currency (CBDC) for retail customers and merchants in four cities, including Mumbai and Delhi, from December 1 on a pilot basis.
- The e-rupee (e₹) would be issued in the same denominations that paper currency and coins are currently issued.
- Users will be able to transact with e₹ through a digital wallet offered by the participating banks and stored on mobile phones or other devices or gadgets.
- CBDC or the Digital Rupee is categorised into two types namely Retail (CBDC-R) and Wholesale (CBDC-W).
- Transactions can be both person-to-person (P2P) and person-to-merchant (P2M).
Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct? (Level – Medium) PYQ (2016)
Viruses can infect
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
- 1 and 2 only
- 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- It is known that Viruses can infect plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, archaea, etc.
- Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (1952) worked with viruses that infect bacteria called bacteriophages.
- According to the type of the host they infect, viruses are classified mainly into the following four types:
- Plant viruses including algal viruses-RNA/DNA
- Animal viruses including human viruses-DNA/RNA
- Fungal viruses (Mycoviruses) – Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)
- Bacterial viruses (Bacteriophages) including cyanophages
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- Overflowing landfill sites in various parts of the country point towards the failure of waste management policy. Do you agree? Elaborate. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS II – Governance)
- The huge pendency of cases in the Indian courts can’t just be solved by increasing the number of judges. Critically analyze. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS II – Polity)
Read the previous CNA here.
CNA 30 Nov 2022:- Download PDF Here