Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is an autonomous body established in 1942. Its Director-General is Shekhar C. Mande who took charge in 2018.

Since its inception, the CSIR has become the largest research and development organisation in India with over 38 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Centres and 5 units throughout the nation.

This article will give details about the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research within the context of the IAS Exam.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

History of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

In the 1930s there was a growing need for establishing research organisations for the development of natural resources and new industries in India. Prominent scientists such as C.V. Raman (passed on November 21, 1970) and J.C. Ghosh proposed and an advisory board of scientific research.

Indian scientists at Calcutta and Bangalore initiated schemes to launch a National Institute of Sciences and an Indian Academy of Sciences, respectively. At the Fifth Industries Conference in 1933, the Provincial Governments of Bombay, Madras, Bihar and Orissa unanimously reiterated their demand for a co-ordinating forum for industrial research. Lord Willingdon, the Viceroy of India at the time found it unnecessary to promote the application of research to natural resources. Instead, he offered to create an Industrial Intelligence and Research Bureau, which came into operation in April 1935. 

When World War II broke out in 1939, the British government decided to divert funds to help the war effort.  It was when Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar recommended that the Bureau be terminated but not for economic reasons, instead to make room for a Board of Scientific and Industrial Research. Since he was a member of the Viceroy’s executive council, his recommendation held sway. His recommendation paid off when the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) was created on 1 April 1940. Mudaliar was made chair of the board. 

Since its inception, the achievements of BSIR included the development of the research on vegetable oil blends as fuel, plastic packing case for army boots and ammunition, dyes for uniforms and preparation of vitamins.

Then the constitution of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as an autonomous body was prepared under Mudaliar and Bhatnagar. Thus, CSIR came into operation on 26 September 1942 when a decision was made to create an organisation to further the advancement in industrial research.

Objectives & Missions of CSIR

It is a pan-India organisation, with a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Complexes and 5 units. CSIR is supported by over 8000 scientists across the country and was established keeping various objectives in mind.

Discussed below are the main objectives of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR):

  • Radio and space physics, oceanography, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology and nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering and information technology are the various spectrums which are covered under CSIR
  • It aims to provide significant technological intervention in many areas with regard to societal efforts
  • CSIR also plays an important role in Science and Technology human resource development
  • The Organisation has operationalised desired mechanisms to boost entrepreneurship, which would further lead to enhanced creation and commercialisation of innovations, underpinning the development of new economic sectors
  • CSIR has managed to change the scenario of Science and Technology related opportunities, which has ultimately motivated CSIR towards:
    • Science and Engineering leadership
    • Innovative technology solutions
    • Nurturing talent in transdisciplinary areas
    • Science-based entrepreneurship

UPSC aspirants must also refer to the List of Government Schemes in India and know the objectives of each of the major Government programs and policies.

UPSC IAS 2021

Structure of CSIR

The image given below shows the Organisational structure of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Candidates can refer to the image and know about the functioning of the Organisation:

CSIR - Organisational Structure

Notable Achievement of the CSIR

Regarding intellectual property, the CSIR has over 2971 patents filed internationally with 1592 patents filed in India. Since its inception in 1942 over 14000 patents have been granted worldwide. It was awarded the National Intellectual Property Award in 2018 by the India Patent Office.

To know more about Intellectual Property Rights in India visit the linked article

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research has carried out development activities in the realm of aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.

Some of its notable achievements in these fields are as follows: 

  • Development of the indigenously developed synthetic drug, methaqualone
  • Design of the first India Tractor – Swaraj – in 1967
  • First organisation in India to analyse the genetic diversity of the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar islands.
  • Designed India’s first-ever parallel processing computer, Flosolver.
  • Upgradation of one of India’s oldest refineries at Digboi using modern distillation technology
  • Establishment of the ‘Traditional Knowledge Digital Library’ which can be accessed in five languages – English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish
  • Successfully challenged the grant of patent in the US for use of Haldi (turmeric) for wound healing and neem as insecticide.
  • Successfully completed the sequencing of the Human Genome in 2009
  • In 2020, initiated clinical trials to evaluate Sepsivac’s efficacy to reduce the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.

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Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

Aspirants can find the complete UPSC Syllabus through the linked article. More exam-related preparation materials will be found through the links given below

To get the best Preparation Strategy for Competitive Exams, candidates can visit the linked article.

For any further exam updates, latest notifications, study material or preparation tips, candidates can turn to BYJU’S for expert assistance.

Frequently Asked Questions on CSIR

Q 1. What is CSIR?

Ans. CSIR stands for Council of Scientific & Industrial Research.

Q 2. Who has developed the SWAAS Oxygen Concentrator?

Ans. In technical collaboration with CSIR-CMERI, a Hyderabad based Company, Zen Medical® has developed an Oxygen concentrator named – SWAAS.

Q 3. Where is the headquarters of CSIR?

Ans. The headquarters of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is located in New Delhi.

Q 4. When was CSIR developed?

Ans. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research was established on September 26, 1942.

Q 5. Who established CSIR in India?

Ans. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was established by Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar.

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