Telangana was created as India’s 29th state on 2nd June 2014. It was the end result of a decade long movement to bring about a new state based more on cultural factors rather than on a linguistic basis.
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Background of the Formation of Telangana
There had been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of the Telangana Political Joint Action Committee (TJAC) including political leadership representing the Telangana area. On 9 December 2009, the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.
The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.
Formation of Telangana – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here
Telangana Formation – Timeline of Events
- The region of Telangana was part of the erstwhile Hyderabad State ruled by the Nizam.
- In 1955, the States Reorganisation Committee (SRC) recommended the retention of Hyderabad as a separate state. This recommendation was, however, not taken.
- The people of Telangana protested that the region was more backward than the coastal regions of Andhra and also alleged that there were injustices in the distribution of budget allocation, employment opportunities and water.
- On 1st November 1956, Telangana was merged with the state of Andhra Pradesh, uniting all Telugu-speaking people.
- The movement for Telangana continued in the region. There were ‘Jai Telangana’ and ‘Jai Andhra’ movements.
- There were violent agitations as well particularly in 1969 and 1972 in which many people were killed in police firing.
- After the 1969 agitation, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi gave the 6-point formula for the fast-paced development of the backward areas and for preferential treatment to local candidates for employment.
- In 1997, the BJP supported the formation of a separate state. In 2001, K Chandrasekhara Rao formed the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) to revive the movement.
- In the various elections held in the state of Andhra Pradesh, the people voted for TRS and gave a public impetus to the movement.
- In 2009, there was a huge boost to the movement when Rao went on a hunger strike for a separate Telangana, reminding people of the hunger strike and ultimately death of Potti Sreeramulu (Born on March 16, 1901) who agitated for the state of Andhra.
- Many young people also committed suicide for the movement.
- In 2010, the Srikrishna Committee was appointed to “bring about a permanent solution” to this issue. The committee stated in its report that efforts must be made to bring about equitable development to the three regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh, and it recommended a united Andhra Pradesh.
- However, owing to pressure, the Union cabinet approved a bill for the bifurcation of the state.
- The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill was passed in 2014. Hyderabad was suggested as a common capital. It will remain so for not more than ten years after which it will be the capital of Telangana alone, and Andhra Pradesh would get a new capital.
- The new state of Telangana was formed on 2nd June 2014.
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