Difference between State and Union Territory - Evolution of 28 states and 9 UTs

A nation is known by its states and union territories. India as a country comprises 28 states and 9 Union Territories. There is a difference between a state and a union territory. This article will mention the basic differences between the two for IAS Exam aspirants along with the explanation of the states and union territories.

Evolution of States and Union Territories in India

Our 28 states and 9 Union Territories have come out from the two categories of political units:

  1. The British Provinces
  2. The Princely States

India as an independent nation started with a total of 29 states classified into four categories:

  1. Part A: Nine erstwhile governor’s provinces of British India
  2. Part B: Nine erstwhile princely states with legislatures
  3. Part C: Erstwhile chief commissioner’s provinces of British India and some of the erstwhile princely states. These Part-C states (in all 10 in number) were centrally administered
  4. Part D: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Check the states in the above-mentioned parts at the time of India’s independence:

Part A States Part B States Part C States Part D States
Assam Hyderabad Ajmer Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Bihar Jammu & Kashmir Bhopal
Bombay Madhya Bharat Bilaspur
Madhya Pradesh Mysore Cooch-Behar
Madras Patiala & East Punjab Coorg
Punjab Rajasthan Delhi
Orissa Saurashtra Himachal Pradesh
United Provinces Travancore-Cochin Kutch
West Bengal Vindhya Pradesh Manipur
Tripura

Later, with the States Reorganisation Act (1956) and the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act (1956), the distinction between Part-A and Part-B states was done away with and Part-C states were abolished. Some of them were merged with adjacent states and some others were designated as union territories.

As a result, the following 14 states and 6 union territories were created in 1956:

States Union Territory
Andhra Pradesh Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Assam Delhi
Bihar Himachal Pradesh
Bombay Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands
Jammu & Kashmir Manipur
Kerala Tripura
Madhya Pradesh
Madras
Mysore
Orissa
Punjab
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

States and Union Territories Post-1956

The demand for the creation of states based on the languages was one of the major reasons for India to have a number of states. Post-1956, India came up with 29 States and 7 Union Territories:

States Union Territory
Andhra Pradesh Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Arunachal Pradesh Chandigarh
Assam Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Bihar Daman and Diu
Chhattisgarh Delhi (National Capital Territory)
Goa Lakshadweep
Gujarat Puducherry
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir
Jharkhand
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Tripura
Uttarakhand
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

Note: After the repeal of the special status of Jammu & Kashmir in July 2019, on October 31, 2019, the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir was bifurcated into two union territories:

  1. Jammu & Kashmir
  2. Ladakh

Hence, now India has 28 states and 9 Union Territories.

Political Map of India 2019

Difference between States and Union Territories

The basic differences between a state and a union territory are given below which can help aspirants in UPSC 2020 exam as the bifurcation of Jammu & Kashmir state makes this topic important.

Difference States Union Territory
Definition It is an independent unit which is run by the state legislature which either is unicameral or bicameral:

(to read the difference between unicameral and bicameral, refer to the linked article.)

It is not an independent unit but is run by the administrators appointed by the President of India

Note:

Delhi and Puducherry are the only two UTs that have a legislature and are governed by a governor, CM and council of ministers.

Administration State Legislature:

  • Governor
  • Chief Minister & Council of Ministers
Central Government through Lieutenant Governors or in case of Delhi and Puducherry, a Governor
Executive Head President Lt. Governor/ Governor
Centre’s relationship Federal in character Unitary in character
Election Chief Minister is elected An administrator is appointed by the President
Autonomy Exist Does not exist

IAS aspirants must understand that both states and union territories are important blocks of a nation. While states are bigger in size, UTs are smaller. These differences will help aspirants to understand the two in a better way.

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