As we know an element can gain or lose electrons in order to attain their nearest noble gas configuration. This helps them in attaining stability.
What are Covalent Bonding in Elements?
A covalent bond is also termed as molecular bond. The pair of electrons participating in this type of bonding is called shared pair or bonding pair. Sharing bonding pairs will ensure that the atoms achieve stability in the outer shell which is similar to the atoms of noble gases. The following table shows the element, their valence electrons and how they can achieve their nearest noble gas configuration:
(number in red denotes valence electron)
|How the elements become stable?
(Last shell should have 8 electrons as per Octet rule)
|2,8, 1||Lose 1 electron to attain their nearest noble gas configuration and so become stable.
|2,8, 3||Lose 3 electrons to attain their nearest noble gas configuration of neon and so become stable.
|2,8, 5||Gain 3 electrons to attain their nearest noble gas configuration of neon and so become stable|
|2,8, 7||Gain 1 electron to attain their nearest noble gas configuration and so become stable of Neon.
|C(6)||2, 4||Gain or lose 4 electrons to attain their nearest noble gas configuration of Helium.
According to the table, carbon needs to gain or lose 4 electrons to become stable, which seems impossible as:
- Carbon cannot gain 4 electrons to become C4-, because it will be tough for 6 protons to hold 10 electrons and so the atom will become unstable.
- Carbon cannot lose 4 electrons to become C4+ because it would require large amount of energy to remove out 4 electrons and also the C4+ would have only 2
electrons held by proton, which will again become unstable
Carbon cannot gain or donate electron, so to complete its nearest noble gas configuration, it shares electron to form covalent bond. Covalent bond is formed by equal sharing of electrons from both the participating atoms. Covalent bond is of three types:
- Single bond- When only one pair of electron is shared between the two participating atoms, then single bond is formed.
- Double bond- When two pairs of electrons are shared between the two participating atoms, then double bond is formed.
- Triple bond- When three pairs of electrons are shared between the two participating atoms, then triple bond is formed.
The shared pairs of electrons belong to the outer shells of both the atoms. This helps both the atoms in attaining their nearest noble gas configuration.
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