Ammonia - NH3

What is Ammonia?

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a chemical formula NH3. It consists of hydrogen and nitrogen. In its aqueous form, it is called as ammonium hydroxide. This inorganic compound has a pungent smell. In its concentrated form, it is dangerous and caustic. Ammonia is lighter than air with a density of 0.769  kg/m3 at STP. It is widely used as a fertilizer. It is also used in the manufacturing of explosives such as nitrocellulose and TNT. Also, it is used in the production of soda ash and in the Ostwald process to get nitric acid.

Properties of Ammonia – NH3

NH3 Ammonia
Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass 17.031 g/mol
Density 0.73 kg/m³
Boiling Point -33.34 °C
Melting Point −77.73 °C

Ammonia structure – NH3

Ammonia structure

NH3 Uses (Ammonia)

  • It is used as fertilizers as it increases the yield of crops
  • It is used in the household as a cleaner – NH3 is mixed with water to clean stainless steel and glass
  • It is used in food products as an antimicrobial agent
  • It is used in the fermentation industry
  • It is used as a refrigerant
  • It is used as a PH adjuster in the fermentation process
  • It is used to neutralize pollutant like nitrogen oxides emitted from diesel engines
  • It is used as a fuel for rocket engines
  • It is used in textile industries
  • It is used in the manufacture of synthetic fiber like rayon and nylon

Also Read:

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Practise This Question

There are some deposits of nitrates and phosphates in earth's crust. Nitrates are more soluble in water. Nitrates are difficult to reduce under the laboratory conditions but microbes do it easily. Ammonia forms large number of complexes with transition metal ions. Hybridisation easily explains the case of sigma donation capability of NH3 and PH3. Phosphine is a flammable gas and is prepared from white phosphorus.

Among the following, the correct statement is