Sardar Patel - Iron Man of India's Biography & Contributions in India's Freedom Struggle

Starting from India’s freedom struggle to the unification of the Indian states, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is one of the men who we talk about. To know about Sardar Patel, who is also known as Iron Man of India, is one of the things an IAS Exam aspirant should do.

This article will provide you with relevant facts about Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, important for UPSC. You can also download the notes PDF on Sardar Patel provided at the end of the article.

A few topics that candidates must read in relation with Sardar Patel are linked below:

National Unity Day 2023 Integration of Princely States
Bardoli Satyagraha Sardar Sarovar Dam

Sardar Patel – Important Facts for UPSC

There are some important questions related to Sardar Patel, which are answered in the table below:

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel – Relevant Facts for UPSC  
Who is Sardar Patel? He was a political and freedom leader in India’s freedom struggle
When was Sardar Patel Born? He was born on October 31, 1875, in Gujarat. The village is known as ‘Nadiad’
Why is he known as Iron Man of India? Because of his strong opinions for the unification of princely states into one nation, his positive outlook towards women empowerment and his active role to build India into what it is today, he is called the Iron Man of India
When did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel die? 15th December 1950, Sardar Patel died because of a heart attack
Who gave the title of ‘Sardar’ to Vallabhbhai Patel? Mahatma Gandhi gave the title of ‘Sardar’ to Vallabhbhai Patel

However, following Bardoli Satyagraha, he was called Sardar by the women of the village because of his active participation and his role

By what other names, Sardar Patel is known? He is called:

  • ‘Bismarck of India’ following his role in unifying the fragments of princely states into a one unit
  • Founder of Modern All India Services
What was Sardar Patel’s role in India’s freedom? Sardar Patel put all his efforts to unify the fragments of princely states into the Indian union
How was Sardar Patel associated with Indian National Congress (INC)? His association with INC is as follows:

  • He was the secretary of the Gujarat Sabha (Gujarat Wing of INC)
  • He was the President of the INC session held in Karachi
Which session of INC was Sardar Patel the president of? INC’s Karachi Session (1931), Patel was elected as the President. (Read about Indian National Congress Sessions in the linked article.)
What was his position in an independent India? He was the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Independent India
Which individual has a profound impact on Sardar Patel? Mahatma Gandhi had an enormous impact on Sardar Patel
What is the Statue of Unity? It is a one-of-its-kind, tallest statue of the world, of Sardar Patel, on a river island called the Sadhu Bet on the Narmada river in Gujarat’s Kevadiya town, unveiled in 2018

Sardar Patel’s Birth

Significance of the date – 31st October 1875

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

On 31 October 1875, ‘Iron Man of India’ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was born in Nadiad village in present-day Gujarat. Read more on Sardar Patel’s contributions towards India for UPSC 2023.

Note on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel for UPSC

  • Patel’s father Jhaverbhai had been a soldier in the army of Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi. His mother was Ladbai.
  • He passed his matriculation in 1897 and then pursued law in England. After completing his law course in 1913, Patel returned to India and then established his practice at Godhra.
  • He later moved his successful practice to Ahmedabad and initially wanted to accumulate wealth and live a comfortable life for himself and his family. He had married and had two children by then.
  • In Ahmedabad, he happened to meet Mahatma Gandhi and after a couple of meetings, came under his spell. He became an ardent follower of Gandhi and started involving in political work.
  • He became the secretary of the Gujarat wing of the Congress Party (Formed on December 28, 1885) and volunteered to lead the Kheda campaign against taxation of peasants, since Gandhi himself would be at Champaran.
  • The Kheda campaign (1918) was a success and through a village-by-village tour, Patel and his associated compelled the peasants to refuse to pay taxes until the government met their demands. Patel raised an army of volunteers who helped the villagers in this work. This revolt directed a lot of sympathy towards the farmers’ plight. The government agreed to talk with Patel and also suspended taxes for a year. Patel emerged as a hero of the people. (Read about Champaran, Kheda, and Ahmedabad struggles in the post, ‘Rise of Gandhi in India’s freedom struggle.)
  • After this in 1920, he was elected the president of the Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee. He remained in that position till 1945.
  • When Gandhi announced the non-cooperation movement in 1920, Patel supported him and worked tirelessly organising it. It was then that he discarded his European garb and adopted Khadi. Patel was one leader who supported Gandhi when he suspended the movement in the wake of the Chauri Chaura (Happened on February 5th, 1922) incident.
  • Another major campaign led by Patel was the Bardoli Satyagraha in 1928. Here again, he asked farmers to refuse to pay taxes in the wake of floods and famines in the area, and a steep hike in taxes by the government. After the success of this campaign, the title ‘Sardar’ was bestowed on him by his colleagues.
  • Patel was arrested during the Dandi Salt March (1930). After his release following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, he was elected the President of the INC in its Karachi session in 1931. He was again arrested in 1932.
  • He became a central figure in the Congress Party and was its chief fundraiser and organiser especially in selecting candidates for the central and provincial assemblies. He believed in instilling discipline among the party members and did not want people to be distracted from the larger goal which was independence from British rule.
  • He supported the Quit India Movement and inspired people to fight by an emotional speech made on 7 August 1942. He was arrested along with all prominent national leaders and released only in June 1945.
  • Partition of India seemed inevitable and even though Patel was against it, he understood that it was needed at that time as the Congress and the Muslim League could not see eye to eye on that issue. It was also needed to stem the tide of communal hatred and violence that was seeping throughout the country. At the Congress meeting set to vote on the proposal, he said, “I fully appreciate the fears of our brothers from [the Muslim-majority areas]. Nobody likes the division of India and my heart is heavy. But the choice is between one division and many divisions. We must face facts. We cannot give way to emotionalism and sentimentality….Whether we like it or not, de facto Pakistan already exists in the Punjab and Bengal. Under the circumstances, I would prefer a de jure Pakistan, which may make the League more responsible. Freedom is coming. We have 75 to 80 per cent of India, which we can make strong with our own genius. The League can develop the rest of the country.”
  • Patel represented India on the Partition Council where the division of public assets between the two new nations was overseen.
  • After the unimaginable horrors of the violence during partition, Patel set about organising relief work and refugee camps. He called the South Indian regiments of the Indian Army to restore order in the affected areas knowing well that the police force of Punjab and Delhi, who were too close to the tragedy, could not be relied upon.
  • Patel is revered in India not only for his role as a freedom fighter but also for his role in unifying the country after independence. India was politically composed of British Indian provinces and the princely states which numbered more than 600.
  • Patel is considered as the Bismarck of India with regard to his stellar contribution to the political integration of the country. When the Nawab of Junagadh acceded to Pakistan despite having an 80% Hindu population, Patel sent the army there. With a combination of military and political tactics, the princely state was merged with India. Hyderabad also, with a similar situation (Hindu majority with a Muslim ruler) followed the Junagadh way. The Indian army, on the orders of Patel, invaded Hyderabad in 1948 and secured its union with India.
  • Patel was in charge of the Provincial Constitution Committee and the Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas, in the Constituent Assembly of India.
  • For his role in setting up the modern civil services of India, he is also referred to as the ‘patron saint’ of the civil services. He famously called the services the ‘steel frame’ of the country’s government machinery.
  • Sardar Patel died in Bombay of a massive heart attack on 15 December 1950 aged 75.
  • He was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1991. His birth anniversary is observed as Rashtriya Ekta Diwas (National Unity Day) since 2014.

Sardar Patel – UPSC Notes:-Download PDF Here

Another significance of this date

1984: Indira Gandhi assassinated by her own bodyguards.

See previous ‘This Day in History’ here.

Read about other eminent names from India’s freedom struggle:

Jawaharlal Nehru Motilal Nehru
Dadabhai Naoroji W C Bonnerjee

For more UPSC- related preparation articles and Indian history-related articles, visit the links that are given in the table below. Candidates can get a general idea of the UPSC exam pattern by visiting the UPSC syllabus page

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