The Deccan Sultanates refer to five different Muslim dynasties that ruled late medieval kingdoms in Golconda, Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmednagar and Berar in southwestern India. All the dynasties had different ethnic backgrounds like Turkic, Afghan and Mongol. These kingdoms were situated in the Deccan Plateau between the Vindhya Ranges and the Krishna River. These kingdoms arose as independence kingdoms when the Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated. Ahmednagar declared its independence in 1490. Bijapur and Berar followed suit the same year. In 1518, Golconda declared its independence. Bidar was the last to become independent in 1528. A Portuguese invasion in 1510 against Goa was thwarted by Bijapur but it lost the city to the European power in the same year.
The five Sultanates were mostly rivals but they did unite against the mighty Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, lastingly weakening the latter at the Battle of Talikota. After a coup in Berar in 1574, Ahmednagar conquered it. Bijapur seized Bidar in 1619. Later, the Mughal Empire conquered the Deccan Sultanates. Ahmednagar lost Berar in 1569 and was itself annexed entirely between the years 1616 and 1636 by the Mughals. Aurangzeb conquered Bijapur and Golconda during his campaign in 1686-87.