NCERT Notes: Koppen Climate Classification [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article is about the Koppen’s Climate Classification- Group A Climates. Climatology is an important topic for the civil services exam.

Koppen Climate Classification

  • Koppen’s Group-A climates are found in the unbroken belt around the Earth at low latitudes, typically within 15° North and South.
  • Group A climates are regulated largely by the seasonal variations of the trade winds, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the Asian monsoon.

Group A: Tropical Humid Climates

  • Tropical humid climates exist between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
  • Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone makes the climate hot and humid.
  • The annual range of temperature in this region is very low whereas the annual rainfall is high.
  • The tropical group is divided into three types. They are:
    • Af – Tropical wet climate
    • Am – Tropical monsoon climate
    • Aw – Tropical wet and dry climate

Tropical Wet Climate (Af)

  • Tropical wet climate is seen near the equator.
  • The chief areas that lie in this climate are:
    • Amazon Basin in South America
    • Western Equatorial Africa
    • The islands of East Indies
  • A substantial amount of rainfall occurs in every month of the year.
  • These regions receive thundershowers in the afternoon.
  • The temperature is uniformly high.
  • The annual range of temperature is negligible.
  • The maximum temperature during daytime is about 30°C whereas the minimum temperature is about 20°C.
  • The region is bestowed with Tropical evergreen forests and large biodiversity.

Tropical Monsoon Climate (Am)

  • Tropical monsoon climate (Am) is found over:
    • The Indian sub-continent
    • North Eastern part of South America
    • Northern Australia
  • These regions receive heavy rainfall in summer.
  • Winter in this area seems to be dry.

Tropical Wet and Dry Climate (Aw)

  • Tropical wet and dry climate is found in north and south of Tropical Wet Climate (Af) type climate regions.
  • It borders with Cf or Cw on the eastern part and dry climate on the western part of the continent.
  • Extensive Aw climate is found in
    • Sudan
    • South of Central Africa
    • North and South of the Amazon forest in Brazil
    • Connecting parts of Bolivia and Paraguay in South America
  • The annual rainfall in Tropical Wet and Dry Climate is significantly less than that in Af and Am climate types.
  • The wet season is shorter in this region.
  • The dry season is longer with the drought being more severe.
  • The diurnal ranges of temperature are extreme in the dry season.
  • Temperature is high throughout the year.
  • Deciduous forest and tree-shredded grasslands main flora found in this region.

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