Koeppen's Climate Classification - Group D Climate [NCERT Notes for UPSC]

The Koeppen’s Group D Climate is found majorly in the middle and high latitudes. This type of climate is also termed as the moist continental mid-latitude climate. It is one of the types in the broad Koeppen’s Climate Classification.

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group D Climates.

Koeppen’s Climate Classification – Group D Climates (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Koeppen’s Group D Climates

In a major portion of the middle and high latitudes lie a group of climates classified within the Koeppen scheme as C and D.

  • The average temperature is above 10 °C in their warmest months.
  • The average temperature in the coldest month is below −3 °C.
  • This climatic condition is generally found in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, typically north of 40°N.
  • Group D climates are very rare in the Southern Hemisphere, due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land at 40–60° south.
  • It exists only in some highland locations.

Cold Snow Forest Climates (D)

  • Cold snow forest climate is found in the large continental area in the northern hemisphere between 40°-70° North latitudes.
  • The regions lying in this climate are:
    • Europe
    • Asia
    • North America
  • Cold snow forest climates are divided into two types:
    • Df- cold climate with humid winter.
    • Dw- cold climate with dry winter.
  • The severity of winter is more pronounced in higher latitudes.

Cold Climate with Humid Winters (Df)

  • Cold climate with humid winters is found in the poleward of mid-latitude steppe and marine west coast climate.
  • The winters are snowy and cold.
  • The frost-free season is short.
  • The annual ranges of temperature are high.
  • The weather changes are unexpected and short.
  • Poleward, the winters are extreme.

Cold Climate with Dry Winters (Dw)

  • Cold climate with dry winter mainly found over North-Eastern Asia.
  • Precipitation occurs in summer.
  • The annual precipitation is low from 12-15 cm.
  • The progress of pronounced winter anticyclone and its weakening in summer sets in the monsoon-like reversal of the wind in this area.
  • Poleward summer temperatures are poorer and winter temperatures are very low with several locations experiencing below freezing point temperatures.

Koeppen’s Climate Classification – Group D Climates (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Read about different categories of Koeppen’s Climate Classification from the links below:

Frequently Asked Questions on Koppen’s Group D Climate

Q 1. What is Koppen’s Group D Climate?

Ans. The Koeppen’s Group D Climate is found majorly in the middle and high latitudes. This type of climate is also termed as the moist continental mid-latitude climate. They are found in the large continental area in the northern hemisphere between 40°-70° North latitudes.

Q 2. What are the different classifications of Group D climate?

Ans. Koppen’s Group D climate can be classified as follows:
  • Cold Climate with Humid Winters (Df)
  • Cold Climate with Dry Winters (Dw)

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