The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was first released in 2016. The primary aim of the plan is to make India disaster resilient and drastically lessen the damage caused during and in the aftermath of disasters, natural and man-made. The plan was updated in 2018.
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“Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.”
The NDMP serves as a document or guideline for the government agencies to act in all phases of disasters. It is based on the Sendai Framework, which is a United Nations framework, for substantially reducing disaster risk, and losses to lives and livelihoods. The NDMP is also as per the Disaster Management Act, 2005 and the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009.
Strengthening Disaster Risk Governance
As per the NDMP, there are six thematic areas for action in which the central and the state governments should function. They are listed below:
- Mainstream and integrate DRR and Institutional Strengthening
- Capacity Development
- Promote Participatory Approaches
- Work with Elected Representatives
- Grievance Redress Mechanism
- Promote Quality Standards, Certifications, and Awards for Disaster Risk Management
Salient Features of NDMP
NDMP covers all the following phases of disaster management:
As per the Sendai Framework, the five thematic areas of action are as follows:
- Understanding Risk
- Inter-Agency Coordination
- Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
- Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures
- Capacity Development
The objectives of the NDMP are listed below:
- To improve understanding of disaster risk, vulnerabilities and hazards.
- To strengthen the governance of disaster risk at every level, i.e., from national to local.
- To invest in the reduction of disaster risk for resilience by means of structural, non-structural and financial measures, and also by a comprehensive capacity development.
- To improve disaster preparedness for effective response.
- To encourage ‘Build Back Better’ in recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitation.
- To prevent disasters and ensure a significant decrease in the disaster risk and loss of life, livelihood, health and assets including physical, economic, cultural, social and environmental assets.
- Enhance resilience and check new disasters from emerging and reduce existing ones.
- To promote the execution of inclusive and integrated structural, economic, social, legal, health, cultural, environmental, educational, political, technological and institutional measures to reduce and prevent hazard exposure and vulnerabilities to disasters.
- To empower communities as well as local authorities to manage and decrease disaster risks.
- To bolster technical and scientific capabilities in all areas of disaster management.
- To develop capacity at every level to effectively respond to multiple hazards and for a community-based management of disaster.
- To offer clarity on responsibilities and roles of the various departments and ministries involved.
- To foster a culture of disaster risk mitigation and prevention at all levels.
- To enable the mainstreaming of disaster management concerns into planning.
The Plan has listed 18 broad activities to serve as a ready reckoner guide. They are:
- Search and Rescue of People and Animals
- Evacuation of People and Animals
- Medical Care
- Housing and Temporary Shelters
- Food & Essential Supplies
- Rehabilitation and Ensuring Safety of Livestock and other Animals, Veterinary Care
- Early Warning, Maps, Satellite inputs, Information Dissemination
- Data Collection and Management
- Disposal of Animal Carcasses
- Drinking-Water/ Dewatering Pumps/ Sanitation Facilities/ Public Health
- Relief Logistics and Supply Chain Management
- Fodder for livestock in scarcity-hit areas
- Media Relations
- Relief Employment