A disease is a disorder of a function or an abnormal condition that affects a part or all of an organism. The diseases may be broadly categorized into two types namely acquired and congenital.
- Acquired Diseases: These diseases are acquired after birth. They can be classified into two types. Communicable and noncommunicable diseases.
- Infectious or communicable diseases: These diseases are caused due to fungi, rickettsiae, viruses, protozoans, worms, and bacteria.
- Noninfectious or Noncommunicable diseases: These diseases do not spread to others they restrain with a person who has developed them.
- Degenerative or Organic Diseases: These diseases are caused due to malfunctioning of some of the vital organs in the body. For instance heart disease. It results from the abnormal functioning of some part of this organ.
- Allergies: This disease occurs when the body becomes hypersensitive to the certain foreign substance that comes in contact with the substance. One of the fine examples is the hay fever.
- Deficiency Diseases: These diseases occurs due to the deficiency of hormones, minerals, nutrients and vitamins. For example diabetes, goiter, kwashiorkor, and beriberi etc.
- Cancer: This is caused due to an uncertain growth of certain tissues in the body.
Beneath are the list of some bacterial diseases and pathogens.
|Vibrio comma (Vibrio cholera)||Cholera|
|Bordetella pertussis||Whooping cough|
The Immune System
It is the ability of the body to prevent all types of foreign bodies entering the body. There are 2 categories of immunity. That is Innate Immunity and Acquired Immunity.
Innate Immunity: It remains throughout life. It Comprises of various types of barriers that prevent the entry of foreign agents. It consists of all defense elements with which an individual is born.
Acquired Immunity: It can be short termed or long leave. As mentioned earlier it is acquired after birth. It comprises of antibodies and specialized cells namely B-Cells and T-Cells that circulates in the body fluid.
Immunology: It is a science that deals with various phenomena of induced sensitivity, immunity, and allergy.
Antibodies: They are the Immunoglobulins (Igs) that are produced in the body in response to the foreign bodies. Note that all immunoglobulins are not antibodies.
Antigens: These are the substances that are introduced into the body to stimulate the production of antibodies.
Malaria has proved to be a serious threat to temperate and tropical regions. With the aid of NMEP- National Malaria Eradication Programme and WHO – World Health Organization it was almost eliminated a few years ago.
- Symptoms: Few of the common symptoms include muscular pain, tiredness, yawning, and headache. During the fever, a person may experience an acute headache, high temperature, he may feel chilly and experience shivers. The cycle would repeat if the medicine is not taken.
- Cause: It is caused due to the toxins produced in the human body through Plasmodium, malarial parasites.
- Transmission: It occurs when a mosquito carrying a malarial parasite bites a healthy person.
- Types: They are four species of Plasmodium that is responsible for human malaria. They are stated below:
- falciparum: It is capable of causing three types of malaria. It attacks almost daily. It is usually fatal and very severe. These species of mosquito are found in a tropical region. It is irregular malaria.
- Vivax: It recurs every third day that is it affects after forty-eight hours. It causes benign tertian malaria.
- malaria: It recurs every fourth day that is it affects after seventy-two hours. It causes quartan malaria.
- Incubation Period: It lasts about ten days. It is the incubation period for malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax.
- Life-cycle of Plasmodium: It completes its life cycle in two phases and two hosts. Sexual phase in the female Anopheles mosquito host and asexual phase in the human host.