The word organic refers to the compounds which contain the carbon atoms in it. So the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of compounds, which does not consist of carbon-hydrogen atoms in it, is called as ‘Inorganic Chemistry.' In simple words, it is opposite to that of the Organic Chemistry. The substances which do not have carbon-hydrogen bonding are the metals, salts, chemical substances, etc.
On this planet, there are known to exist about 100,000 number of Inorganic compounds. Inorganic chemistry studies the behavior of these compounds along with their properties, their physical and chemical characteristics too. The elements of the periodic table except the carbon and hydrogen, come in the lists of Inorganic compounds.
Classification of Inorganic Compounds
The organic compounds coming under Inorganic chemistry are as follows-
- Acids– Acids are those compounds that dissolve in water and generate hydrogen ions or H+ Ions. The examples of acids include Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, sulphuric acid, vinegar, etc. One example of the acidic reaction is shown below-
Hydrochloric acid + water—————H+ + Cl
- Bases– Base is a type of substance or a compound that produces hydroxyl ions when kept in water. The bases like potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonia, sodium hydroxide produce OH- ions when dissolved in water.
Potassium Hydroxide + H2O —————-K+ + OH-
- Salts– As you might be familiar with the word ‘Salt’. The substances obtained as a result of the reaction between an acid and a base are called as Salts. The table salt of the sodium hydroxide is one of the typical examples of salts.
- Oxides- The compounds which consists of one oxygen atom called as Oxides.
Types of Reactions and Examples
There are about four types of Inorganic chemistry reactions namely combination, decomposition, single displacement and double displacement reactions.
- Combination Reactions– As it is in the name ‘Combination’, here two or more substances combines to form a product which is called as Combination reaction.
For example – Barium + F2 ————-BaF2
- Decomposition Reaction– It is a type of reaction where a single element splits up or say decomposes into two products. For example
FeS————-Fe + S
- Single Displacement Reactions– A reaction where a single atom of one element replaces another atom of one more element. For example-
Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) ———————–Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq)
- Double Displacement Reactions– This type of reaction is also called as ‘metathesis reactions’. Here two elements of two different compounds displace each other to form two new compounds. For example
CaCl2 (aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq)——————–Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 AgCl (s)
Applications of Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic chemistry finds its high number of applications in various fields such as Biology, chemical, engineering, etc
- It is applied in the field of medicine and also healthcare facilities
- The most common application is the use of common salt or the compound Sodium hydroxide in our daily lives
- The baking soda is used in the preparation of cakes and other foodstuffs
- Many inorganic compounds are utilized in the ceramic industries as well
- In the electrical field, it is applied to the electric circuits as silicon in the computers, etc.
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