Why Aniline is Meta Directing

The aniline amino group is ortho and para-directing, while meta-directing is aniline hydrogen chloride. The NH2 group in aniline is ortho and para guiding group because due to resonance, they will release electrons to the ring and at the same time remove the electrons towards themselves due to +1 impact from the aromatic ring. In ortho and para position, the resonance structure of anilines indicates negative charge develops.

If the relative yield of the ortho product and that of the para product is greater than that of the meta product, the benzene ring substituent in the monosubstituted benzene is referred to as the ortho, para directing group. The substituent is called a meta directing group if the opposite is observed.

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