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Question

(a) define a base.
(b) Explain, all alkalis are bases but all bases are not alkalis.

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Solution

(a) Base is a compound that contains displaceable oxide (O2-) or hydroxide (OH-) ion or ions. A base reacts with H+ or H3O+ions (hydronium) present in an acid to produce a salt and water. Examples include NaOH and CuO.

NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2OBase Acid Salt Water

(b) An alkali is a basic hydroxide that is soluble in water; it produces hydroxyl (OH-) ions as the only negatively charged ions. Sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide are water-soluble bases; thus, they are alkalis. But all bases are not alkalis, as many bases do not dissolve in water.​ Bases like ferric hydroxide and cupric hydroxide are not soluble in water; hence, they are not alkalis. Thus, we can say that all alkalis are bases, but all bases are not alkalis.

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