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Question

(a) How is the study of human genetics done? 
(b) The karyotype (set of chromosomes) shown below is taken from a dividing cell of a certain individual.
(i) Is the individual male or female? Explain your answer.
(ii) How would you expect a (1) female cell (2) sperm cell to differ in chromosome composition?  [4 MARKS]


Solution

Each Part: 2 Marks

(a) The study of human genetics is carried out by pedigree analysis, chromosome karyotyping and population genetics.

(b) (i) Male, because there is a Y chromosome and an X chromosome.
(ii) 1. A female would have two X chromosomes and no Y chromosome.
2. A sperm cell would have half the number of chromosomes, i.e. 23 instead of 46. There would be only one sex chromosome which could be either Y or X.

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