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(a) The diagram given below is to prepare iron (III) chloride in the laboratory:
Figure

(i) What is substance B?
(ii) What is the purpose of B?
(iii) Why is iron (III) chloride to be stored in a closed container?
(iv) Write the equation for the reaction between iron and chloride.
(b) Write the equation(s) for the reaction(s) to prepare lead sulphate from lead carbonate.

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Solution

(i) Substance B is anhydrous (fused) calcium chloride (CaCl2).

(ii) Anhydrous calciu
m chloride absorbs the moisture present in the apparatus. This helps in keeping the anhydrous ferric chloride dry as it is a highly deliquescent salt.

(iii) Iron (III) chloride should be stored in a closed container because of its deliquescent nature. In the presence of moisture, iron (III) chloride absorbs water, gets dissolved in it and forms a saturated solution.

(iv) When dried chlorine gas is passed over heated iron, it forms anhydrous iron (III) chloride.

2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3 Anhydrous iron (III) chloride

(b) The preparation of lead sulphate from lead carbonate involves the following steps:
Step I: Insoluble lead carbonate first reacts with dilute nitric acid to form soluble lead nitrate.

PbCO3 + dil.2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2Lead carbonate Nitric acid Lead nitrate (Soluble)

ā€‹ Step II: Dilute sulphuric acid is then added to lead nitrate to form lead sulphate and nitric acid.

Pb(NO3)2 + dil. H2SO4 PbSO4 + 2HNO3Lead nitrate Sulphuric acid Lead sulphate Nitric acid

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