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Annual variations are seen in intensity and duration of temperature on Earth. Such variations when combined with annual variations in precipitation results in major biomes on Earth, which are illustrated in the diagram. Identify which of the following biomes has the minimum and maximum mean annual temperature respectively?

Arctic tundra and tropical rain forest
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Tropical rainforest and desert
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Tropical rainforest and arctic tundra
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Desert and coniferous forest
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The correct option is A Arctic tundra and tropical rain forest
A biome is any regional unit that has a particular type of flora (plants), fauna (animals) and climate.

The axis of Earth is slightly tilted and it rotates around the sun and in its own place around this tilted axis. Due to this, different parts of Earth receive different angles of sunlight. Therefore, different parts of Earth experience different climates and seasons. These different climates lead to different kinds of flora and fauna which adapt to specific climates.

A season is a period of the year that is distinguished by special climatic conditions. The four seasons are spring, summer, fall, and winter. Climate refers to the usual condition of the temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind and rainfall in an area.

There are different biomes present on Earth as follows :
  • Desert - They are characterised by very little rainfall (less than 50 centimeters per year). It is extremely hot during the day and very cold at night. Examples of organisms include plants like cactus and animals like camels.
  • Grasslands - It consist of large open areas of grass. It has low rainfall and the average temperatures are about -20°C to 30°C. Examples of animals include lions, wolves etc.
  • Tropical rainforest - They are characterised by over 200 cm of rainfall per year and they are very warm with an average daily temperature of 28°C. Examples of organisms include trees like teak and animals like lions, tigers etc.
  • Temperate forest - The climate of a temperate forest is highly variable depending on the location of the forest. The average temperature in temperate forests is 10°C. They average 30 to 60 inches of precipitation a year in the form of rain and snow. Organisms include plants like maple, oak and animals like raccoons, opossums, porcupines etc.
  • Coniferous forest - Consist mostly of conifers, which are trees that grow needles instead of leaves and cones instead of flowers. The average winter temperature is -40°C to 20°C, while the average summer temperature is 10°C. Examples of animals in this biome include porcupines, deer, squirrels etc.
  • Arctic and alpine tundra - They are characterised by less than 25 centimeters of precipitation annually and extremely cold temperatures (-34 to -6 degree celsius). Examples of organisms include plants like grasses and animals like reindeers.
Hence option a is correct.

Figure : Biome distribution with respect to annual temperature and precipitation

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