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Answer the following questions in your own words.
a. Which products produced through biotechnology do you use in your daily life?
b. Which precautions will you take during spraying of pesticides?
c. Why some of the organs in human body are most valuable?
d. Explain the importance of fruitprocessing in human life?
e. Explain the meaning of vaccination.

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a. There are various products which we use in our daily life that are produced by biotechnological processes. These products belong to the category of:
  • Medical products like antibiotics, vaccines and insulin.
  • Fruits and dairy products.
  • Microbial metabolites like vitamins and enzymes.
  • Organic acids like acetic acid/vinegar.

b. Pesticides are chemicals which are used on plants for protecting them against pest infection. They contain variou kinds of chemicals which are harmful to humans as well as the environment. There are certain points which should be taken care of while using pesticides like, cover the nose, mouth and eyes while spraying them, keeping them out of the reach of children. Another important point is to prevent excessive use of pesticides as they also lead to water and soil pollution. Instead one should adopt natural or biological methods to ward off pests.

c. We know that the human body is a system which is comprised of various types of organs. These organs have specific and important roles to play and in the absence of their functioning, normal body functions cannot be carried out. There are various reasons like aging, accidents, infections, disorders because of which an organ may become non functional. Such situation can eventually result in the death of the patient. However, organ transplant is a solution for such cases. There are organs which can be donated to such people and our thus valuable, for example, heart, kidney, eyes, liver etc.

d. Fruits are something which we eat everyday. Fruits are called perishable products which means that they cannot be stored for long durations. The solution to this problem is fruit processing. Fruit processing is a process which converts fruits into jams, juices, jellies etc. These processing methods include storage in cold areas, drying salting etc. This process makes the fruits available all around the year and makes their storage possible.

e. Vaccines are the dead or weakened microorganisms, which help the body in fighting against diseases. Our body reacts to infection by microorganisms by producing certain substances called antibodies. These antibodies kill the invading microorganisms, thereby freeing the body from diseases. In order to protect the body from diseases caused by microorganisms, some dead or weakened microbes are introduced in the body, which cause the production of antibodies. These antibodies then remain in the body for a long period of time protecting the body from diseases. This whole process of introducing vaccines into the body is known as vaccination.

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