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Question

Cutting down forests and using the land for other purposes is known as deforestation. It has adverse effects on the environment. Which of the following are correct regarding these effects? 
(i) Decrease in soil erosion  (ii) Increase in temperature (iii) Ground water level gets lowered (iv) Droughts and floods (v) Increase in water holding capacity of the soil


A
(i), (ii), (iii) & (iv)
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B
(ii), (iv) & (v)
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C
(ii), (iii) & (iv)
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D
(i), (ii), (iv) & (v)
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Solution

The correct option is C (ii), (iii) & (iv)
Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses.
effects of deforestation:
Forests are complex ecosystems that affect almost every species on the planet. When they are degraded, it can set off a devastating chain of events both locally and around the world.
Loss of species: 
Seventy percent of the worlds plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation, according to National Geographic. Loss of habitat can lead to species extinction. It also has negative consequences for medicinal research and local populations who rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting and medicine.
Water cycle: 
Trees are important to the water cycle. They absorb rain fall and produce water vapor that is released into the atmosphere. Trees also lessen the pollution in water, according to the North Carolina State University, by stopping polluted runoff. In the Amazon, more than half the water in the ecosystem is held within the plants, according to the National Geographic Society. 
Soil erosion: 
Tree roots anchor the soil. Without trees, the soil is free to wash or blow away, which can lead to vegetation growth problems. The WWF states that scientists estimate that a third of the worlds arable land has been lost to deforestation since 1960. After a clear cutting, cash crops like coffee, soy and palm oil are planted. Planting these types of trees can cause further soil erosion because their roots cannot hold onto the soil. "The situation in Haiti compared to the Dominican Republic is a great example of the important role forests play in the water cycle," Daley said. Both countries share the same island, but Haiti has much less forest cover than the Dominican Republic. As a result, Haiti has endured more extreme soil erosion, flooding and landslide issues.
Life quality: Soil erosion can also lead to silt entering the lakes, streams and other water sources. This can decrease local water quality and contribute to poor health in populations in the area.

Biology

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