Plasmolysis is when plant cells lose water after being placed in a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than the cell does. This is known as a hypertonic solution. Water flows out of the cells and into the surrounding fluid due to osmosis. This causes the protoplasm, all the material on the inside of the cell, to shrink away from the cell wall. Severe water loss that leads to the collapse of the cell wall can result in cell death. Since osmosis is a process that requires no energy on the part of the cell and cannot be controlled, cells cannot stop plasmolysis from taking place.
Phagocytosis, or “cell eating”, is the process by which a cell engulfs a particle and digests it. The word phagocytosis comes from the Greek phago-, meaning “devouring”, and -cyte, meaning “cell”. Cells in the immune systems of organisms use phagocytosis to devour bodily intruders such as bacteria, and they also engulf and get rid of cell debris. Some single-celled organisms like amoebas use phagocytosis in order to eat and acquire nutrients.