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Question

Diabetes mellitus is due to
  1. iodine deficiency
  2. hormonal deficiency
  3. Na+ deficiency
  4. None of the above.


Solution

The correct option is B hormonal deficiency
Insulin is secreted by pancreas when there is increased blood sugar level. It enhances the cellular uptake of glucose and decreases the blood glucose level.

Deficiency of insulin will increase the blood glucose level. This is called hyperglycemia and prolonged hyperglycemia leads to diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients are treated with insulin therapy.

Iodine deficiency leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland, commonly called goitre. This is because iodine is essential for synthesis of thyroid hormones.
Na+ deficiency causes hyponatremia (low blood Na+ levels). It causes lethargy, confusion, and fatigue. It results from drinking too much water or taking certain medications or from kidney failure.

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