An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant, $$\Delta T=O$$. This typically occurs when a system is in constant with an outside thermal reservoir and the change takes place slowly to allow the system to continually adjust to the reservoir's temperature through heat exchange.
Isothermal process takes place in any type of system that regulates the temperature. In the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions, it is first analyzed what happens under isothermal conditions. In an isothermal process, the internal energy of an ideal gas is constant. This is due to the fact that there are no intermoleculaf forces in an ideal gas. In the Isothermal compression of a gas, these is work done on the system to decrease the volume and increase the pressure. Doing work on the gas, can increase the internal energy and increase the temperature. For constant temperature, energy must leave the system. For an ideal gas, the amount of energy entering the environment is equal to the amount of work done on the gas, as the internal energy does not vary.
Adiabatic process is that process in which changed, but there is no transfer of heat between a thermodynamic system and its surrounding. In this process, energy is transferred only is work. This process provides a rigorous conceptual basis to explain the first law of Thermodynamics.
A process in which transfer of heat is not involved in the system, so that $$Q=0$$ is called an adiabatic process. For example, the compression of a gas within an engine's cylinder is assumed to take place so fast that on the time scale of the process of compression, little energy of the system can be transferred out as heat.
Essential conditions for an adiabatic process:
$$\bullet $$ The process of expansion of compression be sudden, so that heat does not get time to get exchanged with the surroundings.
$$\bullet $$ The walls of the container must be perfectly insulated so that there cannot be any exchange of heat between the gas and surrounding.