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Question

Electric field is always directed from positive to negative. While dipole moment is always directed from negative to positive. So, it seems that dipole moment and electric field should always be in opposite directions. But in questions we come across that dipole moment is inclined at some angle to the direction of electric field. Why?

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Solution

It's just because the charge of an electron is negative (by convention).

The reason that the moment is directed from negative to positive is because of the definition of moment:

p=∑q∗d

p=∑q∗d

Where ,

q: charge ( charge of an electron , its is negative) .

d: distance from the origin of coordinates to the charge is positive .

Therefore , the product of -ve ( q ) and +ve (d) quantity will always be negative .

If you have a negative and positive charge, this relation gives you the direction from negative to positive.

The reason that the moment is directed from negative to positive is because of the definition of moment:

p=∑q∗d

p=∑q∗d

Where ,

q: charge ( charge of an electron , its is negative) .

d: distance from the origin of coordinates to the charge is positive .

Therefore , the product of -ve ( q ) and +ve (d) quantity will always be negative .

If you have a negative and positive charge, this relation gives you the direction from negative to positive.

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