Explain different sources of credit in rural areas.
NABARD is an apex institution entrusted with all matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of rural credit and related economic activities. It does not lend to the general public directly but serves as a funding agency for the institutions providing credit in rural areas. Those who lend to the public directly can be categorised into:
(a) Institutional Sources of Credit: Institutional credit institutions include Cooperative Credit Societies, Regional Rural Banks, Land Development Banks and Commercial Banks. Together they constituted only 7% of the credit needs of the farmers in 1950-51 but by 1981 their share increased to 63% and at present, it is 74%.
(b) Non-Institutional Sources of Credit: Landlords, village traders and moneylenders are major non-institutional sources of credit. At the time of independence, their share in total credit was 93% but it has declined sharply over years. But since these credits are not backed by written records, we can't be sure of the available statistics.